Abstract

Major advances characterize the Generation-V dual-Purkinje-image (DPI) eyetracker compared with the Generation-III version previously described. These advances include a large reduction in size, major improvements in frequency response and noise level, automatic alignment to a subject, and automatic adjustment for different separation between the visual and optic axes, which can vary considerably from subject to subject. In a number of applications described in the paper, the eyetracker is coupled with other highly specialized optical devices. These applications include accurately stabilizing an image on a subject's retina; accurately simulating a visually dead retinal region (i.e., a scotoma) of arbitrary shape, size, and position; and, for clinical purposes, stabilizing the position of a laser coagulator beam on a patient's retina so that the point of contact is unaffected by the patient's own eye movements.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Merchant, R. Morrisette, “Remote Measurement of Eye Direction Allowing Subject Motion Over One Cubic Foot of Space,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-21, 309 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. D. Crane, C. M. Steele, “Accurate Three-Dimensional Eyetracker,” Appl. Opt. 17, 691 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. D. Crane, “Stabilized Laser Coagulator,” Technical Report, SRI International, Project 7451, Contract NAS2-9934, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (May1979).
  4. T. N. Cornsweet, H. D. Crane, “Eye Tracker Using Purkinje Images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 921 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. D. Crane, M. R. Clark, “Three-Dimensional Visual Stimulus Deflector,” Appl. Opt. 17, 706 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. H. Kelly, “Motion and Vision. IV. Isotropic and Anisotropic Spatial Responses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 432 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue,” Science 2211078 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. D. Crane, D. H. Kelly, “Accurate Simulation of Visual Scotomas in Normal Subjects,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1802 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue,” Science 2211078 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Crane, D. H. Kelly, “Accurate Simulation of Visual Scotomas in Normal Subjects,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1802 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

1978

1974

J. Merchant, R. Morrisette, “Remote Measurement of Eye Direction Allowing Subject Motion Over One Cubic Foot of Space,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-21, 309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

Clark, M. R.

Cornsweet, T. N.

Crane, H. D.

Kelly, D. H.

Merchant, J.

J. Merchant, R. Morrisette, “Remote Measurement of Eye Direction Allowing Subject Motion Over One Cubic Foot of Space,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-21, 309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Morrisette, R.

J. Merchant, R. Morrisette, “Remote Measurement of Eye Direction Allowing Subject Motion Over One Cubic Foot of Space,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-21, 309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Piantanida, T. P.

H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue,” Science 2211078 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steele, C. M.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

J. Merchant, R. Morrisette, “Remote Measurement of Eye Direction Allowing Subject Motion Over One Cubic Foot of Space,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-21, 309 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Science

H. D. Crane, T. P. Piantanida, “On Seeing Reddish Green and Yellowish Blue,” Science 2211078 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. D. Crane, “Stabilized Laser Coagulator,” Technical Report, SRI International, Project 7451, Contract NAS2-9934, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (May1979).

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the Generation-V DPI eyetracker.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simplified schematic of the DPI eyetracker.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Detailed schematic of the optical paths of the DPI eyetracker.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interconnection diagram of the four-quadrant photodetectors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Generation-V and (B) earlier version of the 2-D mirror servo assembly.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Partial assembly drawing of the Generation-V mirror servo assembly.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Noise characteristics of the Generation-V eyetracker using a model eye.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

System delay characteristics. Trace furthest left is actual motion of the artificial eye (1° step). Trace furthest right is eyetracker output without feed forward. Intermediate trace is eyetracker output with feed forward (showing ≈0.25-msec delay).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Frequency response characteristics of the Generation-V eyetracker.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Cross section of the new model eye; r1 and r4: radii of curvature of the front and rear surfaces of the lens, respectively; n1 and n2 (dielectric constants); r1 = 7.8 mm, r4 = 5.8 mm, n1 = 1.54346, n2 = 1.49655.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Field plot using the new model eye. Regions enclosed by the semicircles are areas most likely to be affected by tracking artifacts (see text).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Horizontal (θH) fixation record.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Field plot with a human eye.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Two-dimensional image-stabilizing system.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Two-dimensional image-stabilizing system for simulating visual scotomas.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Schematic diagram of a stabilized coagulator system.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Schematic of the stabilizing section of the stabilized coagulator.

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