Abstract

In this work, we used 248-nm 20-nsec laser pulses to measure laser-damage thresholds for halfwave-thick single layers of fifteen potential UV coating materials, for highly reflective coatings made of thirteen combinations of these materials, and for antireflective coatings made using five combinations of the materials. Refractive index, absorption, position of the UV absorption edge, stress, and environmental stability were measured for the halfwave-thick single layers. The first three of these parameters are closely related and were generally correlated with damage thresholds of the single-layer coatings. Thresholds of HR coatings were correlated with absorption in the high-index materials used in the coatings and with refractive index of the low-index materials. Thresholds of AR films were not well correlated with properties of single-layer coatings.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium Oxide Coatings for High-Power UV Laser Applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, F. Rainer, “Effects of Undercoats and Overcoats on Damage Thresholds of 248 nm Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 638 (1983), pp. 344–349.
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Bulk and Surface Damage Thresholds of Crystals and Glasses at 248 nm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 431 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, “Ultraviolet Damage Resistance of Laser Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 541 (1978), pp. 190–201.
  5. T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-172041 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. F. Turner, “Ruby Laser Damage Thresholds in Evaporated Thin Films and Multilayer Coatings,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1971, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 356 (1971), pp. 119–123.
  7. J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, A. J. Glass, “The Refractive Index Dependence of Pulsed Laser Induced Damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec, Publ. 414 (1974), pp.214–217.
  8. M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Predictions of the Effects of Thermal and Optical Properties on Laser Damage Thresholds From a Spherical Impurity Model,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), to be published.

1983 (2)

T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, F. Rainer, “Effects of Undercoats and Overcoats on Damage Thresholds of 248 nm Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 638 (1983), pp. 344–349.
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Bulk and Surface Damage Thresholds of Crystals and Glasses at 248 nm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-172041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, “Ultraviolet Damage Resistance of Laser Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 541 (1978), pp. 190–201.

1974 (1)

J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, A. J. Glass, “The Refractive Index Dependence of Pulsed Laser Induced Damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec, Publ. 414 (1974), pp.214–217.

1971 (1)

A. F. Turner, “Ruby Laser Damage Thresholds in Evaporated Thin Films and Multilayer Coatings,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1971, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 356 (1971), pp. 119–123.

Bettis, J. R.

J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, A. J. Glass, “The Refractive Index Dependence of Pulsed Laser Induced Damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec, Publ. 414 (1974), pp.214–217.

Carniglia, C. K.

T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, F. Rainer, “Effects of Undercoats and Overcoats on Damage Thresholds of 248 nm Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 638 (1983), pp. 344–349.
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium Oxide Coatings for High-Power UV Laser Applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gill, D. H.

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, “Ultraviolet Damage Resistance of Laser Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 541 (1978), pp. 190–201.

Glass, A. J.

J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, A. J. Glass, “The Refractive Index Dependence of Pulsed Laser Induced Damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec, Publ. 414 (1974), pp.214–217.

Guenther, A. H.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-172041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, A. J. Glass, “The Refractive Index Dependence of Pulsed Laser Induced Damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec, Publ. 414 (1974), pp.214–217.

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Predictions of the Effects of Thermal and Optical Properties on Laser Damage Thresholds From a Spherical Impurity Model,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), to be published.

Hart, T. T.

T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, F. Rainer, “Effects of Undercoats and Overcoats on Damage Thresholds of 248 nm Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 638 (1983), pp. 344–349.
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium Oxide Coatings for High-Power UV Laser Applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, M. R.

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Predictions of the Effects of Thermal and Optical Properties on Laser Damage Thresholds From a Spherical Impurity Model,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), to be published.

Lichtenstein, T. L.

T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, F. Rainer, “Effects of Undercoats and Overcoats on Damage Thresholds of 248 nm Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 638 (1983), pp. 344–349.
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium Oxide Coatings for High-Power UV Laser Applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowdermilk, W. H.

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Bulk and Surface Damage Thresholds of Crystals and Glasses at 248 nm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium Oxide Coatings for High-Power UV Laser Applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIver, J. K.

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Predictions of the Effects of Thermal and Optical Properties on Laser Damage Thresholds From a Spherical Impurity Model,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), to be published.

Milam, D.

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Bulk and Surface Damage Thresholds of Crystals and Glasses at 248 nm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium Oxide Coatings for High-Power UV Laser Applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newnam, B. E.

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, “Ultraviolet Damage Resistance of Laser Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 541 (1978), pp. 190–201.

Nielsen, P. E.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-172041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Bulk and Surface Damage Thresholds of Crystals and Glasses at 248 nm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, F. Rainer, “Effects of Undercoats and Overcoats on Damage Thresholds of 248 nm Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 638 (1983), pp. 344–349.
[CrossRef]

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, “Scandium Oxide Coatings for High-Power UV Laser Applications,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3685 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner, A. F.

A. F. Turner, “Ruby Laser Damage Thresholds in Evaporated Thin Films and Multilayer Coatings,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1971, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 356 (1971), pp. 119–123.

Walker, T. W.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-172041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Damage in Laser Materials: 1971 (1)

A. F. Turner, “Ruby Laser Damage Thresholds in Evaporated Thin Films and Multilayer Coatings,” in Damage in Laser Materials: 1971, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 356 (1971), pp. 119–123.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. E. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-172041 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974 (1)

J. R. Bettis, A. H. Guenther, A. J. Glass, “The Refractive Index Dependence of Pulsed Laser Induced Damage,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1974, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec, Publ. 414 (1974), pp.214–217.

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978 (1)

B. E. Newnam, D. H. Gill, “Ultraviolet Damage Resistance of Laser Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1978, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 541 (1978), pp. 190–201.

Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981 (1)

T. T. Hart, T. L. Lichtenstein, C. K. Carniglia, F. Rainer, “Effects of Undercoats and Overcoats on Damage Thresholds of 248 nm Coatings,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1981, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Spec. Publ. 638 (1983), pp. 344–349.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Rainer, W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, “Bulk and Surface Damage Thresholds of Crystals and Glasses at 248 nm,” Opt. Eng. 22, 431 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. R. Lange, J. K. McIver, A. H. Guenther, “Predictions of the Effects of Thermal and Optical Properties on Laser Damage Thresholds From a Spherical Impurity Model,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.), to be published.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thresholds measured with 248-nm 20-nsec pulses on single-layer films of candidate UV materials. Optical thickness of each film was 124 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of thresholds of single-layer films on (a) extinction coefficient, (b) position of the UV absorption edge, (c) index of refraction, and (d) film stress. Films with absorption edge at wavelengths ≪200 nm and at wavelengths <200 nm were arbitrarily plotted at, respectively, 194 and 196 nm. Compressive stress is taken to be positive in sign and tensile stress to be negative.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thresholds measured with 248-nm 20-nsec pulses in Hr coatings made from thirteen combinations of high- and low-index materials.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Thresholds measured with 248-nm 20-nsec pulses in AR coatings made from five combinations of materials.

Tables (1)

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Table I Physical Properties of Single-Layer Films with Optical Thickness of 124 nm

Equations (2)

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E t = N n 2 1 q e ɛ 0 X cr .
J t T m C p Kt ,

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