Abstract

It is demonstrated that through control of the refractive index surrounding a fused biconical-taper single-mode coupler the coupling coefficient can be changed from 0% to 96%. Data are also presented that show the coupling mechanism cannot be attributed to power transfer between the modal fields guided by the fiber cores in the taper-waist region. The results support the model of the coupling mechanism as a beat phenomenon between modes guided by a glass core with a dumbbell cross section and an external refractive index.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-Taper Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6, 327 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. S. Kawasaki, M. Kawachi, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, “A Single-Mode-Fiber Coupler with a Variable Coupling Ratio,” IEEE/OSA J.Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 176 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, “Low-Loss Access Coupler for Multimode Optical Fiber Distribution Networks,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1794 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fibre Optical Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. H. Slonecker, J. C. Williams, “Recent Advances in Single-Mode Fused Taper Coupler Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 50 (1983).
  6. T. Brichero, A. Fielding, “Stable Low-Loss Single-Mode Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 230 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Ragdale, D. N. Payne, F. DeFornel, R. J. Mears, “Single-Mode Fused Biconical Taper Fibre Couplers,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, London26–28 Apr.1983 (IEE, London, 1983),pp.75–78.
  8. K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Efficient Coupling-Ratio Control in Single-Mode-Fiber Biconical-Taper Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper WE2.
  9. J. Bures, S. Lacroix, et J. Lapierre, “Analyse d'un coupleur bidirectione a fibres optiques monomodes fusionnees,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1918 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Bures, S. Lacroix, C. Veilleux, J. Lapierre, “Some Particular Properties of Monomode Fused Fiber Couplers,” Appl. Opt. 23, 968 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. R. Cooper, “Refractive-Index Measurements of Liquids Used in Conjunction with Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3070 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), p. 6–105.
  13. R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1980–81), pp.D239–D240.
  14. J. W. Fleming, “Material Dispersion in Lightguide Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 14, 326 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. D. Love, A. Ankiewicz, Electron. Lett. 20, 362 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (3)

T. Brichero, A. Fielding, “Stable Low-Loss Single-Mode Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 230 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, A. Ankiewicz, Electron. Lett. 20, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Bures, S. Lacroix, C. Veilleux, J. Lapierre, “Some Particular Properties of Monomode Fused Fiber Couplers,” Appl. Opt. 23, 968 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (4)

J. Bures, S. Lacroix, et J. Lapierre, “Analyse d'un coupleur bidirectione a fibres optiques monomodes fusionnees,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1918 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. R. Cooper, “Refractive-Index Measurements of Liquids Used in Conjunction with Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3070 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Kawasaki, M. Kawachi, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, “A Single-Mode-Fiber Coupler with a Variable Coupling Ratio,” IEEE/OSA J.Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Slonecker, J. C. Williams, “Recent Advances in Single-Mode Fused Taper Coupler Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 50 (1983).

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fibre Optical Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

J. W. Fleming, “Material Dispersion in Lightguide Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 14, 326 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Ankiewicz, A.

J. D. Love, A. Ankiewicz, Electron. Lett. 20, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fibre Optical Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brichero, T.

T. Brichero, A. Fielding, “Stable Low-Loss Single-Mode Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 230 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bures, J.

Cooper, P. R.

DeFornel, F.

C. M. Ragdale, D. N. Payne, F. DeFornel, R. J. Mears, “Single-Mode Fused Biconical Taper Fibre Couplers,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, London26–28 Apr.1983 (IEE, London, 1983),pp.75–78.

Fielding, A.

T. Brichero, A. Fielding, “Stable Low-Loss Single-Mode Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 230 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

J. W. Fleming, “Material Dispersion in Lightguide Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 14, 326 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

B. S. Kawasaki, M. Kawachi, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, “A Single-Mode-Fiber Coupler with a Variable Coupling Ratio,” IEEE/OSA J.Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-Taper Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6, 327 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, “Low-Loss Access Coupler for Multimode Optical Fiber Distribution Networks,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1794 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Efficient Coupling-Ratio Control in Single-Mode-Fiber Biconical-Taper Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper WE2.

Johnson, D. C.

B. S. Kawasaki, M. Kawachi, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, “A Single-Mode-Fiber Coupler with a Variable Coupling Ratio,” IEEE/OSA J.Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Efficient Coupling-Ratio Control in Single-Mode-Fiber Biconical-Taper Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper WE2.

Kawachi, M.

B. S. Kawasaki, M. Kawachi, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, “A Single-Mode-Fiber Coupler with a Variable Coupling Ratio,” IEEE/OSA J.Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kotler, G.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fibre Optical Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Lacroix, S.

Lamont, R. G.

B. S. Kawasaki, K. O. Hill, R. G. Lamont, “Biconical-Taper Single-Mode Fiber Coupler,” Opt. Lett. 6, 327 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Efficient Coupling-Ratio Control in Single-Mode-Fiber Biconical-Taper Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper WE2.

Lapierre, et J.

Lapierre, J.

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, A. Ankiewicz, Electron. Lett. 20, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Mears, R. J.

C. M. Ragdale, D. N. Payne, F. DeFornel, R. J. Mears, “Single-Mode Fused Biconical Taper Fibre Couplers,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, London26–28 Apr.1983 (IEE, London, 1983),pp.75–78.

Payne, D. N.

C. M. Ragdale, D. N. Payne, F. DeFornel, R. J. Mears, “Single-Mode Fused Biconical Taper Fibre Couplers,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, London26–28 Apr.1983 (IEE, London, 1983),pp.75–78.

Ragdale, C. M.

C. M. Ragdale, D. N. Payne, F. DeFornel, R. J. Mears, “Single-Mode Fused Biconical Taper Fibre Couplers,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, London26–28 Apr.1983 (IEE, London, 1983),pp.75–78.

Shaw, H. J.

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fibre Optical Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Slonecker, M. H.

M. H. Slonecker, J. C. Williams, “Recent Advances in Single-Mode Fused Taper Coupler Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 50 (1983).

Veilleux, C.

Williams, J. C.

M. H. Slonecker, J. C. Williams, “Recent Advances in Single-Mode Fused Taper Coupler Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 50 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Electron. Lett. (4)

R. A. Bergh, G. Kotler, H. J. Shaw, “Single-Mode Fibre Optical Directional Coupler,” Electron. Lett. 16, 260 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Brichero, A. Fielding, “Stable Low-Loss Single-Mode Couplers,” Electron. Lett. 20, 230 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleming, “Material Dispersion in Lightguide Glasses,” Electron. Lett. 14, 326 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Love, A. Ankiewicz, Electron. Lett. 20, 362 (1984).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J.Lightwave Technol. (1)

B. S. Kawasaki, M. Kawachi, K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, “A Single-Mode-Fiber Coupler with a Variable Coupling Ratio,” IEEE/OSA J.Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 176 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

M. H. Slonecker, J. C. Williams, “Recent Advances in Single-Mode Fused Taper Coupler Technology,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 412, 50 (1983).

Other (4)

C. M. Ragdale, D. N. Payne, F. DeFornel, R. J. Mears, “Single-Mode Fused Biconical Taper Fibre Couplers,” in Proceedings, First International Conference on Optical Fibre Sensors, London26–28 Apr.1983 (IEE, London, 1983),pp.75–78.

K. O. Hill, D. C. Johnson, R. G. Lamont, “Efficient Coupling-Ratio Control in Single-Mode-Fiber Biconical-Taper Couplers,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper WE2.

D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1982), p. 6–105.

R. C. Weast, Ed., Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (CRC Press, Cleveland, 1980–81), pp.D239–D240.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a fused-biconical single-mode coupler immersed in a solution of water and glycerol.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of experimental arrangement used to measure the characteristics of the single-mode coupler immersed in a water–glycerol solution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characteristics of coupler A. Top half of figure illustrates cross section of the coupler at taper waist and a plot of the variation of the relative total power transmitted through the coupler (ratio in percent of total output power transmitted through the coupler in solution to total output power transmitted through the coupler in air) as a function of the index of refraction of the solution. Bottom half is a plot of the coupling coefficient m13 as a function of the index of refraction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristics of coupler B. Top half of figure illustrates cross section of the coupler at taper waist and a plot of the variation of the relative total power transmitted through the coupler (ratio in percent of total output power transmitted through the coupler in solution to total output power transmitted through the coupler in air) as a function of the index of refraction of the solution. Bottom half is a plot of the coupling coefficient m13 as a function of the index of refraction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Characteristics of coupler C. Top half of figure illustrates cross section of the coupler at taper waist and a plot of the variation as a function of the index of the total power transmitted through the coupler of refraction of the solution. Bottom half is a plot of the coupling coefficient m13 as a function of the index of refraction.

Tables (2)

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Table I Refractive Indices at Sodium-D Line and He–Ne Wavelengths

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Table II Summary of Characteristics of Three Couplers Measured

Equations (2)

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ψ + ψ 1 + ψ 2 , ψ ψ 1 ψ 2 ,
V c = { 8 1 + 4 ln ( D / ρ ) } 1 / 2 ,

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