Abstract

In premixed laminar methane–air flames time- and space-resolved oxygen concentration and temperature measurements have been performing using a Q-switched ruby laser Raman probe. Concentration and temperature have been evaluated from selected intensities of the Raman Stokes vibrational Q-branch. Good agreement was found with comparative suction probe concentration measurements and with additionally performed optical (Rayleigh, cw laser Raman) temperature measurements. For fuel-lean flames with various equivalence ratios the pulsed laser Raman probe could be used for controlling stoichiometric flame conditions. Selecting three different narrowband interference filters appropriately, a simultaneous determination of vibrational and rotational temperatures seems possible.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. See, e.g., M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, Eds., Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics (Plenum, New York, 1974); the review parts in S. Lederman, “The Use of Laser Raman Diagnostics in Flow Fields and Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 3, 1 (1977); A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. Leipertz, “Temperaturbestimmung in Gasen mittels linearer und nichtlinearer Raman-Prozesse,” Habilitation Thesis, Ruhr Universitat Bochum (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, “Use of the Vibrational Raman Effect for Gas Temperature Measurements,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (AIP, New York, 1982), pp. 631–638.
  3. R. W. Dibble, W. Kollmann, R. W. Schefer, “Conserved Scalar Fluxes Measured in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Flame by Combined Laser-Doppler Velocimetry and Laser Raman Scattering,” Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, “A Comparison of Coherent and Spontaneous Raman Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1533–1542.
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. W. Widhopf, S. Lederman, “Specie Concentration Measurements Utilizing Raman Scattering of a Laser Beam,” AIAA, J. 9, 309 (1971); S. Lederman, “Some Applications of Laser Diagnostics to Fluid Dynamics,” AIAA Paper 76-21 (1976); S. Lederman, A. Celentano, J. Glaser, “Temperature, Concentration, and Velocity in Jets, Flames, and Shock Tubes,” Phys. Fluids 22, 1065 (1979); “Flowfield Diagnostics,” AIAA J. 17, 1106 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, L. M. Goldman, “Vibrational Raman Scattering Temperature Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 9, 195 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Eckbreth, “Laser Raman Gas Thermometry,” AIAA Paper 74-1144 (1974); “Laser Raman Thermometry Experiments in Simulated Combustor Environments,” AIAA Paper 76-27 (1976).
  8. W. Stricker, “Local Temperature Measurements in Flames by Laser Raman Spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 27, 133 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Pealat, R. Bailly, J. P. E. Taran, “Real Time Study of Turbulence in Flames by Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 22, 91 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. C. Drake, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Rotational Raman Scattering from Premixed and Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 33, 179 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. C. Black, R. K. Chang, “Laser Raman Optical Multichannel Analyzer for Transient Gas Concentration Profile and Temperature Determination,” AIAA J. 16, 295 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. J. Mulac, W. L. Flower, R. A. Hill, D. P. Aeschliman, “Pulsed Spontaneous Raman Scattering Technique for Luminous Environments,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2695 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. A. Stephenson, R. J. Blint, “Theoretical Fitting of Computer Processed Laser Raman Spectra from Methane- and Propane-Air Flames,” Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 41 (1979); D. A. Stephenson, “High-Temperature Raman Spectra of CO2 and H2O for Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. 35, 582 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Smith, “Temperature and Density Measurements in an Engine by Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in 1980 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 15096), paper 800137.
  15. I. Glatt, I. Smilawski, E. Bar-Ziv, “The Application of Metal Vapor Lasers to Raman Spectroscopy for Gas and Flame Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 232 and 233.
  16. D. P. Aeschliman, J. C. Cummings, R. A. Hill, “Raman Spectroscopic Study of a Laminar Hydrogen Diffusion Flame in Air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 293 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Bechtel, R. J. Blint, C. J. Dasch, D. A. Weinberger, “Atmospheric Pressure Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames: Theory and Experiment,” Combust. Flame 42, 197 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, S. Warshaw, B. W. Gerhold, “Measurements of Temperature and Concentration Fluctuations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Eighteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1521–1531.
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. C. Eckbreth, “Averaging Considerations for Pulsed, Laser Raman Signals from Turbulent Combustion Media,” Combust. Flame 31, 231 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. P. Yaney, “The Pulsed Laser and Gated Detection in Raman Spectroscopy—a Survey of the Spectra of Common Substances Including Studies of Adsorbed Benzene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 5, 219 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. C. Eckbreth, “Effects of Laser-Modulated Particulate Incandescence on Raman Scattering Diagnostics,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Lapp, “Flame Temperatures from Vibrational Raman Scattering,” in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 107–145.
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, “Time-Resolved Temperature Measurement under Thermal Non-Equilibrium Conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 38, 199 (1983).
  25. A. Leipertz, “Raman Oxygen Detection for Combustion Control and Regulation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 901 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. C. Eckbreth, “Laser Raman Thermometry Experiments in Simulated Combustor Environments,” AIAA Paper 76-27 (1976).
  27. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure: I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1966).
  28. D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, London, 1977).
  29. R. E. Setchell, “Time-Averaged Measurements in Turbulent Flames Using Raman Spectroscopy,” AIAA Paper 76-28 (1976).
  30. J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous Measurement of Rotational and Vibrational Gas Temperatures, in preparation.
  31. A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, “Giant Pulse Laser Raman Probe for Low Gas Concentration Detection,” Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. Haumann, “Sanerstoffkonzentrations und Temperaturmessung in Kohlen Wasserstoff flammen mittels Ramanstreung,” Dr. Thesis, Ruhr Universitat Bochum (1984).
  33. A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, “Optical Energy and Spatial Filter for High Local Resolution Raman Spectroscopy with Giant Pulse Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 357 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Flame-Temperature Measurements Using the Rayleigh Scattering Photon-Correlation Technique,” Opt. Lett. 9, 487 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, W. Schmiemann, “Experimental Comparison of CW-Laser Rayleigh and Raman Measurements in Simple Flames,” in preparation.
  36. A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 13, 15 (1978); “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  37. I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, “Error Estimates for Rayleigh Scattering Density and Temperature Measurements in Premixed Flames,” Exp. Fluids 3, 1 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. Gunther, Verbrennung und Feuerungen (Springer, Berlin, 1974).
    [CrossRef]

1985 (1)

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, “Error Estimates for Rayleigh Scattering Density and Temperature Measurements in Premixed Flames,” Exp. Fluids 3, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Flame-Temperature Measurements Using the Rayleigh Scattering Photon-Correlation Technique,” Opt. Lett. 9, 487 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollmann, R. W. Schefer, “Conserved Scalar Fluxes Measured in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Flame by Combined Laser-Doppler Velocimetry and Laser Raman Scattering,” Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, “Time-Resolved Temperature Measurement under Thermal Non-Equilibrium Conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 38, 199 (1983).

A. Leipertz, “Raman Oxygen Detection for Combustion Control and Regulation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 901 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, “Giant Pulse Laser Raman Probe for Low Gas Concentration Detection,” Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Bechtel, R. J. Blint, C. J. Dasch, D. A. Weinberger, “Atmospheric Pressure Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames: Theory and Experiment,” Combust. Flame 42, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (4)

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Aeschliman, J. C. Cummings, R. A. Hill, “Raman Spectroscopic Study of a Laminar Hydrogen Diffusion Flame in Air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 293 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Stephenson, R. J. Blint, “Theoretical Fitting of Computer Processed Laser Raman Spectra from Methane- and Propane-Air Flames,” Appl. Spectrosc. 33, 41 (1979); D. A. Stephenson, “High-Temperature Raman Spectra of CO2 and H2O for Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. 35, 582 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, “Optical Energy and Spatial Filter for High Local Resolution Raman Spectroscopy with Giant Pulse Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 357 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (5)

M. C. Drake, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Rotational Raman Scattering from Premixed and Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 33, 179 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Black, R. K. Chang, “Laser Raman Optical Multichannel Analyzer for Transient Gas Concentration Profile and Temperature Determination,” AIAA J. 16, 295 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Averaging Considerations for Pulsed, Laser Raman Signals from Turbulent Combustion Media,” Combust. Flame 31, 231 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 13, 15 (1978); “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mulac, W. L. Flower, R. A. Hill, D. P. Aeschliman, “Pulsed Spontaneous Raman Scattering Technique for Luminous Environments,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2695 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (2)

A. C. Eckbreth, “Effects of Laser-Modulated Particulate Incandescence on Raman Scattering Diagnostics,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Pealat, R. Bailly, J. P. E. Taran, “Real Time Study of Turbulence in Flames by Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 22, 91 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

W. Stricker, “Local Temperature Measurements in Flames by Laser Raman Spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 27, 133 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Yaney, “The Pulsed Laser and Gated Detection in Raman Spectroscopy—a Survey of the Spectra of Common Substances Including Studies of Adsorbed Benzene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 5, 219 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, L. M. Goldman, “Vibrational Raman Scattering Temperature Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 9, 195 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

G. W. Widhopf, S. Lederman, “Specie Concentration Measurements Utilizing Raman Scattering of a Laser Beam,” AIAA, J. 9, 309 (1971); S. Lederman, “Some Applications of Laser Diagnostics to Fluid Dynamics,” AIAA Paper 76-21 (1976); S. Lederman, A. Celentano, J. Glaser, “Temperature, Concentration, and Velocity in Jets, Flames, and Shock Tubes,” Phys. Fluids 22, 1065 (1979); “Flowfield Diagnostics,” AIAA J. 17, 1106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Aeschliman, D. P.

D. P. Aeschliman, J. C. Cummings, R. A. Hill, “Raman Spectroscopic Study of a Laminar Hydrogen Diffusion Flame in Air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 293 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mulac, W. L. Flower, R. A. Hill, D. P. Aeschliman, “Pulsed Spontaneous Raman Scattering Technique for Luminous Environments,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2695 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailly, R.

M. Pealat, R. Bailly, J. P. E. Taran, “Real Time Study of Turbulence in Flames by Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 22, 91 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Ziv, E.

I. Glatt, I. Smilawski, E. Bar-Ziv, “The Application of Metal Vapor Lasers to Raman Spectroscopy for Gas and Flame Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 232 and 233.

Bechtel, J. H.

J. H. Bechtel, R. J. Blint, C. J. Dasch, D. A. Weinberger, “Atmospheric Pressure Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames: Theory and Experiment,” Combust. Flame 42, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Black, P. C.

P. C. Black, R. K. Chang, “Laser Raman Optical Multichannel Analyzer for Transient Gas Concentration Profile and Temperature Determination,” AIAA J. 16, 295 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Blint, R. J.

Bonczyk, P. A.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 13, 15 (1978); “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bridoux, M.

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

P. C. Black, R. K. Chang, “Laser Raman Optical Multichannel Analyzer for Transient Gas Concentration Profile and Temperature Determination,” AIAA J. 16, 295 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Crunelle-Cras, M.

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cummings, J. C.

D. P. Aeschliman, J. C. Cummings, R. A. Hill, “Raman Spectroscopic Study of a Laminar Hydrogen Diffusion Flame in Air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 293 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dasch, C. J.

J. H. Bechtel, R. J. Blint, C. J. Dasch, D. A. Weinberger, “Atmospheric Pressure Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames: Theory and Experiment,” Combust. Flame 42, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Delhaye, M.

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollmann, R. W. Schefer, “Conserved Scalar Fluxes Measured in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Flame by Combined Laser-Doppler Velocimetry and Laser Raman Scattering,” Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Drake, M. C.

M. C. Drake, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Rotational Raman Scattering from Premixed and Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 33, 179 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, S. Warshaw, B. W. Gerhold, “Measurements of Temperature and Concentration Fluctuations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Eighteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1521–1531.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, “Use of the Vibrational Raman Effect for Gas Temperature Measurements,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (AIP, New York, 1982), pp. 631–638.

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 13, 15 (1978); “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Averaging Considerations for Pulsed, Laser Raman Signals from Turbulent Combustion Media,” Combust. Flame 31, 231 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Effects of Laser-Modulated Particulate Incandescence on Raman Scattering Diagnostics,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Laser Raman Thermometry Experiments in Simulated Combustor Environments,” AIAA Paper 76-27 (1976).

A. C. Eckbreth, “Laser Raman Gas Thermometry,” AIAA Paper 74-1144 (1974); “Laser Raman Thermometry Experiments in Simulated Combustor Environments,” AIAA Paper 76-27 (1976).

Farrow, R. L.

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, “A Comparison of Coherent and Spontaneous Raman Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1533–1542.
[CrossRef]

Fiebig, M.

Flower, W. L.

Gerhold, B. W.

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, S. Warshaw, B. W. Gerhold, “Measurements of Temperature and Concentration Fluctuations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Eighteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1521–1531.
[CrossRef]

Glatt, I.

I. Glatt, I. Smilawski, E. Bar-Ziv, “The Application of Metal Vapor Lasers to Raman Spectroscopy for Gas and Flame Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 232 and 233.

Goldman, L. M.

M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, L. M. Goldman, “Vibrational Raman Scattering Temperature Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 9, 195 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Grase, F.

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Gunther, R.

R. Gunther, Verbrennung und Feuerungen (Springer, Berlin, 1974).
[CrossRef]

Haumann, J.

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Flame-Temperature Measurements Using the Rayleigh Scattering Photon-Correlation Technique,” Opt. Lett. 9, 487 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, “Time-Resolved Temperature Measurement under Thermal Non-Equilibrium Conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 38, 199 (1983).

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, W. Schmiemann, “Experimental Comparison of CW-Laser Rayleigh and Raman Measurements in Simple Flames,” in preparation.

J. Haumann, “Sanerstoffkonzentrations und Temperaturmessung in Kohlen Wasserstoff flammen mittels Ramanstreung,” Dr. Thesis, Ruhr Universitat Bochum (1984).

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous Measurement of Rotational and Vibrational Gas Temperatures, in preparation.

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure: I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1966).

Hill, R. A.

D. P. Aeschliman, J. C. Cummings, R. A. Hill, “Raman Spectroscopic Study of a Laminar Hydrogen Diffusion Flame in Air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 293 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mulac, W. L. Flower, R. A. Hill, D. P. Aeschliman, “Pulsed Spontaneous Raman Scattering Technique for Luminous Environments,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2695 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kollmann, W.

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollmann, R. W. Schefer, “Conserved Scalar Fluxes Measured in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Flame by Combined Laser-Doppler Velocimetry and Laser Raman Scattering,” Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lapp, M.

M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, L. M. Goldman, “Vibrational Raman Scattering Temperature Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 9, 195 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, S. Warshaw, B. W. Gerhold, “Measurements of Temperature and Concentration Fluctuations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Eighteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1521–1531.
[CrossRef]

M. Lapp, “Flame Temperatures from Vibrational Raman Scattering,” in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 107–145.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, “Use of the Vibrational Raman Effect for Gas Temperature Measurements,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (AIP, New York, 1982), pp. 631–638.

Lederman, S.

G. W. Widhopf, S. Lederman, “Specie Concentration Measurements Utilizing Raman Scattering of a Laser Beam,” AIAA, J. 9, 309 (1971); S. Lederman, “Some Applications of Laser Diagnostics to Fluid Dynamics,” AIAA Paper 76-21 (1976); S. Lederman, A. Celentano, J. Glaser, “Temperature, Concentration, and Velocity in Jets, Flames, and Shock Tubes,” Phys. Fluids 22, 1065 (1979); “Flowfield Diagnostics,” AIAA J. 17, 1106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leipertz, A.

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Flame-Temperature Measurements Using the Rayleigh Scattering Photon-Correlation Technique,” Opt. Lett. 9, 487 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leipertz, “Raman Oxygen Detection for Combustion Control and Regulation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 901 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, “Time-Resolved Temperature Measurement under Thermal Non-Equilibrium Conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 38, 199 (1983).

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, “Giant Pulse Laser Raman Probe for Low Gas Concentration Detection,” Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, “Optical Energy and Spatial Filter for High Local Resolution Raman Spectroscopy with Giant Pulse Lasers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 357 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous Measurement of Rotational and Vibrational Gas Temperatures, in preparation.

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, W. Schmiemann, “Experimental Comparison of CW-Laser Rayleigh and Raman Measurements in Simple Flames,” in preparation.

Long, D. A.

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, London, 1977).

Lucquin, M.

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mattern, P. L.

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, “A Comparison of Coherent and Spontaneous Raman Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1533–1542.
[CrossRef]

Mulac, A. J.

Namer, I.

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, “Error Estimates for Rayleigh Scattering Density and Temperature Measurements in Premixed Flames,” Exp. Fluids 3, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pealat, M.

M. Pealat, R. Bailly, J. P. E. Taran, “Real Time Study of Turbulence in Flames by Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 22, 91 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Penney, C. M.

M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, L. M. Goldman, “Vibrational Raman Scattering Temperature Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 9, 195 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, S. Warshaw, B. W. Gerhold, “Measurements of Temperature and Concentration Fluctuations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Eighteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1521–1531.
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, “Use of the Vibrational Raman Effect for Gas Temperature Measurements,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (AIP, New York, 1982), pp. 631–638.

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, “A Comparison of Coherent and Spontaneous Raman Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1533–1542.
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, G. M.

M. C. Drake, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Rotational Raman Scattering from Premixed and Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 33, 179 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schefer, R. W.

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, “Error Estimates for Rayleigh Scattering Density and Temperature Measurements in Premixed Flames,” Exp. Fluids 3, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollmann, R. W. Schefer, “Conserved Scalar Fluxes Measured in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Flame by Combined Laser-Doppler Velocimetry and Laser Raman Scattering,” Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Schmiemann, W.

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, W. Schmiemann, “Experimental Comparison of CW-Laser Rayleigh and Raman Measurements in Simple Flames,” in preparation.

Setchell, R. E.

R. E. Setchell, “Time-Averaged Measurements in Turbulent Flames Using Raman Spectroscopy,” AIAA Paper 76-28 (1976).

Smilawski, I.

I. Glatt, I. Smilawski, E. Bar-Ziv, “The Application of Metal Vapor Lasers to Raman Spectroscopy for Gas and Flame Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 232 and 233.

Smith, J. R.

J. R. Smith, “Temperature and Density Measurements in an Engine by Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in 1980 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 15096), paper 800137.

Sochet, L. R.

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, D. A.

Stricker, W.

W. Stricker, “Local Temperature Measurements in Flames by Laser Raman Spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 27, 133 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Taran, J. P. E.

M. Pealat, R. Bailly, J. P. E. Taran, “Real Time Study of Turbulence in Flames by Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 22, 91 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Verdieck, J. F.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 13, 15 (1978); “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Warshaw, S.

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, S. Warshaw, B. W. Gerhold, “Measurements of Temperature and Concentration Fluctuations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Eighteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1521–1531.
[CrossRef]

Weinberger, D. A.

J. H. Bechtel, R. J. Blint, C. J. Dasch, D. A. Weinberger, “Atmospheric Pressure Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames: Theory and Experiment,” Combust. Flame 42, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Widhopf, G. W.

G. W. Widhopf, S. Lederman, “Specie Concentration Measurements Utilizing Raman Scattering of a Laser Beam,” AIAA, J. 9, 309 (1971); S. Lederman, “Some Applications of Laser Diagnostics to Fluid Dynamics,” AIAA Paper 76-21 (1976); S. Lederman, A. Celentano, J. Glaser, “Temperature, Concentration, and Velocity in Jets, Flames, and Shock Tubes,” Phys. Fluids 22, 1065 (1979); “Flowfield Diagnostics,” AIAA J. 17, 1106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Yaney, P. P.

P. P. Yaney, “The Pulsed Laser and Gated Detection in Raman Spectroscopy—a Survey of the Spectra of Common Substances Including Studies of Adsorbed Benzene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 5, 219 (1976).
[CrossRef]

AIAA J. (1)

P. C. Black, R. K. Chang, “Laser Raman Optical Multichannel Analyzer for Transient Gas Concentration Profile and Temperature Determination,” AIAA J. 16, 295 (1978).
[CrossRef]

AIAA, J. (1)

G. W. Widhopf, S. Lederman, “Specie Concentration Measurements Utilizing Raman Scattering of a Laser Beam,” AIAA, J. 9, 309 (1971); S. Lederman, “Some Applications of Laser Diagnostics to Fluid Dynamics,” AIAA Paper 76-21 (1976); S. Lederman, A. Celentano, J. Glaser, “Temperature, Concentration, and Velocity in Jets, Flames, and Shock Tubes,” Phys. Fluids 22, 1065 (1979); “Flowfield Diagnostics,” AIAA J. 17, 1106 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques for Practical Combustion Diagnostics,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 13, 15 (1978); “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (6)

L. R. Sochet, M. Lucquin, M. Bridoux, M. Crunelle-Cras, F. Grase, M. Delhaye, “Use of Multichannel Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Technique in Flames,” Combust. Flame 36, 109 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. Stricker, “Local Temperature Measurements in Flames by Laser Raman Spectroscopy,” Combust. Flame 27, 133 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Dibble, W. Kollmann, R. W. Schefer, “Conserved Scalar Fluxes Measured in a Turbulent Nonpremixed Flame by Combined Laser-Doppler Velocimetry and Laser Raman Scattering,” Combust. Flame 55, 307 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, G. M. Rosenblatt, “Rotational Raman Scattering from Premixed and Diffusion Flames,” Combust. Flame 33, 179 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Bechtel, R. J. Blint, C. J. Dasch, D. A. Weinberger, “Atmospheric Pressure Premixed Hydrocarbon-Air Flames: Theory and Experiment,” Combust. Flame 42, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Averaging Considerations for Pulsed, Laser Raman Signals from Turbulent Combustion Media,” Combust. Flame 31, 231 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

I. Namer, R. W. Schefer, “Error Estimates for Rayleigh Scattering Density and Temperature Measurements in Premixed Flames,” Exp. Fluids 3, 1 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, “Effects of Laser-Modulated Particulate Incandescence on Raman Scattering Diagnostics,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

D. P. Aeschliman, J. C. Cummings, R. A. Hill, “Raman Spectroscopic Study of a Laminar Hydrogen Diffusion Flame in Air,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 21, 293 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

P. P. Yaney, “The Pulsed Laser and Gated Detection in Raman Spectroscopy—a Survey of the Spectra of Common Substances Including Studies of Adsorbed Benzene,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 5, 219 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Pealat, R. Bailly, J. P. E. Taran, “Real Time Study of Turbulence in Flames by Raman Scattering,” Opt. Commun. 22, 91 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, L. M. Goldman, “Vibrational Raman Scattering Temperature Measurements,” Opt. Commun. 9, 195 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, “Giant Pulse Laser Raman Probe for Low Gas Concentration Detection,” Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, “Time-Resolved Temperature Measurement under Thermal Non-Equilibrium Conditions,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 38, 199 (1983).

Other (16)

A. C. Eckbreth, “Laser Raman Thermometry Experiments in Simulated Combustor Environments,” AIAA Paper 76-27 (1976).

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure: I. Spectra of Diatomic Molecules (Van Nostrand, Princeton, N.J., 1966).

D. A. Long, Raman Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, London, 1977).

R. E. Setchell, “Time-Averaged Measurements in Turbulent Flames Using Raman Spectroscopy,” AIAA Paper 76-28 (1976).

J. Haumann, A. Leipertz, “Simultaneous Measurement of Rotational and Vibrational Gas Temperatures, in preparation.

J. Haumann, “Sanerstoffkonzentrations und Temperaturmessung in Kohlen Wasserstoff flammen mittels Ramanstreung,” Dr. Thesis, Ruhr Universitat Bochum (1984).

A. Leipertz, J. Haumann, W. Schmiemann, “Experimental Comparison of CW-Laser Rayleigh and Raman Measurements in Simple Flames,” in preparation.

M. Lapp, “Flame Temperatures from Vibrational Raman Scattering,” in Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1974), pp. 107–145.
[CrossRef]

R. Gunther, Verbrennung und Feuerungen (Springer, Berlin, 1974).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, “Laser Raman Gas Thermometry,” AIAA Paper 74-1144 (1974); “Laser Raman Thermometry Experiments in Simulated Combustor Environments,” AIAA Paper 76-27 (1976).

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, “A Comparison of Coherent and Spontaneous Raman Combustion Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1533–1542.
[CrossRef]

See, e.g., M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, Eds., Laser Raman Gas Diagnostics (Plenum, New York, 1974); the review parts in S. Lederman, “The Use of Laser Raman Diagnostics in Flow Fields and Combustion,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 3, 1 (1977); A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, “Combustion Diagnostics by Laser Raman and Fluorescence Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. Leipertz, “Temperaturbestimmung in Gasen mittels linearer und nichtlinearer Raman-Prozesse,” Habilitation Thesis, Ruhr Universitat Bochum (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, “Use of the Vibrational Raman Effect for Gas Temperature Measurements,” in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5, J. F. Schooley, Ed. (AIP, New York, 1982), pp. 631–638.

M. C. Drake, M. Lapp, C. M. Penney, S. Warshaw, B. W. Gerhold, “Measurements of Temperature and Concentration Fluctuations in Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in Proceedings, Eighteenth Symposium International on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), pp. 1521–1531.
[CrossRef]

J. R. Smith, “Temperature and Density Measurements in an Engine by Pulsed Raman Spectroscopy,” in 1980 SAE Congress and Exposition (Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pa., 15096), paper 800137.

I. Glatt, I. Smilawski, E. Bar-Ziv, “The Application of Metal Vapor Lasers to Raman Spectroscopy for Gas and Flame Diagnostics,” in Proceedings, Seventh International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy, W. Murphy, Ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 232 and 233.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shape of the Stokes vibrational Q-branch of oxygen for three different temperatures when convoluted by a two-cavity interference filter of 0.5-nm FWHM. The spectral positions of the transmission peaks of the interference filters used for temperature determination are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of the factors gi, Eq. (2), of the interference filters indicated in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature dependence of the calculated ratio g21, Eq. (3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic of the experimental setup. Only one side of two identical collection optics is shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Axial O2 temperature profile in a premixed laminar methane–air flame using different laser techniques.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Axial O2 concentration in a premixed laminar methane–air flame obtained by Raman and suction probe measurements.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Radial temperature profiles taken across the premixed laminar methane–air flame: (a) within the reaction zone and (b) in the postreaction zone.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Radial O2 concentration profiles at a downstream position: (a) within the reaction zone and (b) in the postreaction zone.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

O2 concentration values measured by Raman and suction probes downstream of the reaction zone in its dependence on the adjusted equivalence ratio.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured dependence of flame temperature on the adjusted equivalence ratio. Also indicated are the positions of the reaction zone and the calculated flame velocities.

Equations (6)

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I ( υ , J ) = k · I 0 ( ν ˜ 0 Δ ν ˜ R ) 4 Δ ν ˜ R g j ( 2 J + 1 ) ( υ + 1 ) A Δ J , J T Q vib n M ( T ) · exp { h c k T [ G ( υ ) G ( o ) F υ ( J ) ] } ,
I i = K g i ( T , I F ) c 0 2 I 0 .
I 2 / I 1 = g 2 / g 1 = g 21 ,
c 0 2 = I i k g i I 0 ,
d x d y = { 2 u m Λ [ 1 ( y d / 2 ) 2 ] 2 1 } 1 / 2 ,
H = 4 3 · d 2 [ ( u m Λ ) 2 1 ] 1 / 2 .

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