Abstract

The photon detection efficiency of a ceramic-channel electron multiplier (Ceratron) has been measured on an absolute scale from 20 to 78 Å using monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The measured efficiency was several percent at these wavelengths. Its wavelength dependence shows a gradually increasing trend for wavelengths longer than 28 Å. The efficiency showed two maxima at ~23 and 27 Å, which are presumed to originate from the O-K absorption and the Ti-L absorption, respectively. Optimization of the detection efficiency is discussed.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Parkes, R. Gott, K. A. Pounds, “Soft X-Ray Studies of Channel Multipliers and Multiplier Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-17, 360 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. E. Mack, F. Paresce, S. Bowyer, “Channel Electron Multiplier: Its Quantum Efficiency at Soft X-Ray and Vacuum Ultraviolet Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 15, 861 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. B. Lapson, J. G. Timothy, “Channel Electron Multipliers: Detection Efficiencies with Opaque MgF2 Photocathodes at XUV Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1218 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. R. Riegler, K. A. More, “A High Resolution Position Sensitive Detector for Ultraviolet and X-Ray Photons,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 102 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. W. Fraser, “The Soft X-Ray Quantum Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 523 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Kellogg, P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, P. Bjorkholm, “High-Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 282 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. G. Timothy, “Curved-Channel Microchannel Array Plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1131 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, “Soft X-Ray Energy Resolution with Microchannel Plate Detectors of High Quantum Detection Efficiency,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 219, 199 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Electron Multiplier Catalog No. 0311 (1979).
  11. T. Masuoka, “Detection Efficiency of a Ceramic Channel Electron Multiplier in the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1284 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. H. Suzuki, N. Saito, “Energy Dependence of W Value of Methane in Ultrasoft X-Ray Region,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 26, 305 (1985).
  14. N. Saito, I. H. Suzuki, “Absolute Efficiency of Laminar Plane Granting in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Bull. Electrotechnical Lab. 49, 691 (1985).
  15. B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. S. Brown, “Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure in Condensed Materials,” in Synchrotron Radiation Research, H. Winnick, S. Doniach, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 387.
    [CrossRef]

1985

I. H. Suzuki, N. Saito, “Energy Dependence of W Value of Methane in Ultrasoft X-Ray Region,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 26, 305 (1985).

N. Saito, I. H. Suzuki, “Absolute Efficiency of Laminar Plane Granting in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Bull. Electrotechnical Lab. 49, 691 (1985).

1984

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, “Soft X-Ray Energy Resolution with Microchannel Plate Detectors of High Quantum Detection Efficiency,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 219, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Soft X-Ray Quantum Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 523 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, S. Bowyer, “Quantum Efficiency of Opaque CsI Photocathodes with Channel Electron Multiplier Arrays in the Extreme and Far Ultraviolet,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4206 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

J. G. Timothy, “Curved-Channel Microchannel Array Plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1131 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

T. Masuoka, “Detection Efficiency of a Ceramic Channel Electron Multiplier in the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1284 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976

1973

G. R. Riegler, K. A. More, “A High Resolution Position Sensitive Detector for Ultraviolet and X-Ray Photons,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970

W. Parkes, R. Gott, K. A. Pounds, “Soft X-Ray Studies of Channel Multipliers and Multiplier Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-17, 360 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, P.

E. Kellogg, P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, P. Bjorkholm, “High-Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 282 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

Brown, G. S.

G. S. Brown, “Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure in Condensed Materials,” in Synchrotron Radiation Research, H. Winnick, S. Doniach, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 387.
[CrossRef]

Chiwaki, M.

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, G. W.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, “Soft X-Ray Energy Resolution with Microchannel Plate Detectors of High Quantum Detection Efficiency,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 219, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, “The Soft X-Ray Quantum Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 523 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fujikawa, B. K.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gott, R.

W. Parkes, R. Gott, K. A. Pounds, “Soft X-Ray Studies of Channel Multipliers and Multiplier Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-17, 360 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Henry, P.

E. Kellogg, P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, P. Bjorkholm, “High-Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 282 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kellogg, E.

E. Kellogg, P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, P. Bjorkholm, “High-Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 282 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lapson, L. B.

Lee, P.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mack, J. E.

Martin, C.

Masuoka, T.

T. Masuoka, “Detection Efficiency of a Ceramic Channel Electron Multiplier in the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1284 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mikado, T.

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

More, K. A.

G. R. Riegler, K. A. More, “A High Resolution Position Sensitive Detector for Ultraviolet and X-Ray Photons,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Murray, S.

E. Kellogg, P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, P. Bjorkholm, “High-Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 282 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, T.

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Paresce, F.

Parkes, W.

W. Parkes, R. Gott, K. A. Pounds, “Soft X-Ray Studies of Channel Multipliers and Multiplier Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-17, 360 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. F.

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, “Soft X-Ray Energy Resolution with Microchannel Plate Detectors of High Quantum Detection Efficiency,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 219, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Pounds, K. A.

W. Parkes, R. Gott, K. A. Pounds, “Soft X-Ray Studies of Channel Multipliers and Multiplier Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-17, 360 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Riegler, G. R.

G. R. Riegler, K. A. More, “A High Resolution Position Sensitive Detector for Ultraviolet and X-Ray Photons,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Saito, N.

I. H. Suzuki, N. Saito, “Energy Dependence of W Value of Methane in Ultrasoft X-Ray Region,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 26, 305 (1985).

N. Saito, I. H. Suzuki, “Absolute Efficiency of Laminar Plane Granting in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Bull. Electrotechnical Lab. 49, 691 (1985).

Shimabukuro, R. L.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, S.

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, I. H.

N. Saito, I. H. Suzuki, “Absolute Efficiency of Laminar Plane Granting in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Bull. Electrotechnical Lab. 49, 691 (1985).

I. H. Suzuki, N. Saito, “Energy Dependence of W Value of Methane in Ultrasoft X-Ray Region,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 26, 305 (1985).

Tanaka, T. J.

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Timothy, J. G.

Tomimasu, T.

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Van Speybroeck, L.

E. Kellogg, P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, P. Bjorkholm, “High-Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 282 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables

B. L. Henke, P. Lee, T. J. Tanaka, R. L. Shimabukuro, B. K. Fujikawa, “Low-Energy X-Ray Interaction Coefficients: Photoabsorption, Scattering, and Reflection,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 27, 1 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Electrotechnical Lab.

N. Saito, I. H. Suzuki, “Absolute Efficiency of Laminar Plane Granting in the Soft X-Ray Region,” Bull. Electrotechnical Lab. 49, 691 (1985).

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

T. Tomimasu, T. Noguchi, S. Sugiyama, T. Yamazaki, T. Mikado, M. Chiwaki, “A 600-MeV ETL Electron Storage Ring,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30, 3133 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. Parkes, R. Gott, K. A. Pounds, “Soft X-Ray Studies of Channel Multipliers and Multiplier Arrays,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-17, 360 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Riegler, K. A. More, “A High Resolution Position Sensitive Detector for Ultraviolet and X-Ray Photons,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-20, 102 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods

G. W. Fraser, “The Soft X-Ray Quantum Detection Efficiency of Microchannel Plates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 195, 523 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Fraser, J. F. Pearson, “Soft X-Ray Energy Resolution with Microchannel Plate Detectors of High Quantum Detection Efficiency,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods 219, 199 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Radiat. Phys. Chem.

I. H. Suzuki, N. Saito, “Energy Dependence of W Value of Methane in Ultrasoft X-Ray Region,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 26, 305 (1985).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

T. Masuoka, “Detection Efficiency of a Ceramic Channel Electron Multiplier in the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 1284 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. Kellogg, P. Henry, S. Murray, L. Van Speybroeck, P. Bjorkholm, “High-Resolution Imaging X-Ray Detector,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 282 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Timothy, “Curved-Channel Microchannel Array Plates,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1131 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Electron Multiplier Catalog No. 0311 (1979).

G. S. Brown, “Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure in Condensed Materials,” in Synchrotron Radiation Research, H. Winnick, S. Doniach, Eds. (Plenum, New York, 1980), p. 387.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental system for determination of the detection efficiency of the Ceratron. A diaphragm in the main chamber decides the spot size of the photon beam, and the Ceratron is movable by a linear motion mechanism: P.G.M., plane grating monochromator; D.P.S., differential pumping system; Prop. Count., proportional counter; H.V., stabilized high voltage supply; Lin. Amp., linear amplifier; P.H.A., pulse height analyzer; S.C.A., single channel analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absolute detection efficiency of the Ceratron as a function of wavelength of soft x rays from 19.9 to 41 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute detection efficiency of the Ceratron as a function of wavelength of soft x rays from 39 to 78 Å.

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