Abstract

Most in-water irradiance and radiance measurements at sea are carried out by suspending an instrument from a hydrocable located relatively close to the ship, the presence of which can severely perturb the in-water light field. This paper describes Monte Carlo techniques which have been developed specifically to assess such perturbations. Sample computations of the perturbation to the upward and downward irradiances due to the presence of the ship are presented for the case of a homogeneous ocean. The results reveal situations in which the downward irradiance, in the case of collimated illumination, is relatively unperturbed, while large effects are observed in the case of diffuse illumination. Conversely, the upwelled irradiance just beneath the surface is seen to be strongly influenced by the ship’s presence for both types of illumination.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 227–237.
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1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric Effects in the Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

C. A. Adams, G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres 1. Rayleigh Scattering,” Icarus 35, 139 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, T. J. Humphreys, G. N. Plass, “Radiative Transfer in an Atmosphere Ocean System: A Matrix Operator Approach,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 160, 123 (1978).

1977 (1)

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of Oceanic Turbidity and Index of Refraction of Hydrosols on the Flux of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere–Ocean System,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1973 (2)

1972 (1)

1970 (1)

J. F. Potter, “The Delta Function Approximation in Radiative Transfer Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 943 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

J. E. Hansen, “Exact and Approximate Solution for Multiple Scattering by Cloudy and Hazy Planetary Atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

M. H. Kalos, “On the Estimation of Flux at a Point by Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 111 (1963).

1957 (1)

K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957).
[CrossRef]

1942 (1)

P. Moon, D. E. Spencer, “Illumination from a Non-Uniform Sky,” Illum. Eng. N.Y. 37, 707 (1942).

Adams, C. A.

C. A. Adams, G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres 1. Rayleigh Scattering,” Icarus 35, 139 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Blattner, W. G.

Booth, C. R.

Broenkow, W. W.

Brown, J. W.

Brown, O. B.

Case, K. M.

K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).

Catchings, F. E.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. P., London, 1950).

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. W. Brown, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, W. W. Broenkow, “Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations in the Middle Atlantic Bight: Comparison of Ship Determinations and CZCS Estimates,” Appl. Opt. 22, 20 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric Effects in the Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 227–237.

Collins, D. G.

Evans, R. H.

Gelbard, E. M.

J. Spanier, E. M. Gelbard, Monte Carlo Principles and Neutron Transport Problems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1969).

Gordon, H. R.

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen, “Exact and Approximate Solution for Multiple Scattering by Cloudy and Hazy Planetary Atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Horak, H. G.

Humphreys, T. J.

G. W. Kattawar, T. J. Humphreys, G. N. Plass, “Radiative Transfer in an Atmosphere Ocean System: A Matrix Operator Approach,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 160, 123 (1978).

Jacobs, M. M.

Kalos, M. H.

M. H. Kalos, “On the Estimation of Flux at a Point by Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 111 (1963).

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar, T. J. Humphreys, G. N. Plass, “Radiative Transfer in an Atmosphere Ocean System: A Matrix Operator Approach,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 160, 123 (1978).

C. A. Adams, G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres 1. Rayleigh Scattering,” Icarus 35, 139 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, “Matrix Operator Theory of Radiative Transfer. 1: Raleigh Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, P.

P. Moon, D. E. Spencer, “Illumination from a Non-Uniform Sky,” Illum. Eng. N.Y. 37, 707 (1942).

Morel, A. Y.

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Visible Satellite Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

Nakajima, T.

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of Oceanic Turbidity and Index of Refraction of Hydrosols on the Flux of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere–Ocean System,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

G. W. Kattawar, T. J. Humphreys, G. N. Plass, “Radiative Transfer in an Atmosphere Ocean System: A Matrix Operator Approach,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 160, 123 (1978).

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, F. E. Catchings, “Matrix Operator Theory of Radiative Transfer. 1: Raleigh Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 12, 314 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potter, J. F.

J. F. Potter, “The Delta Function Approximation in Radiative Transfer Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 943 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

Spanier, J.

J. Spanier, E. M. Gelbard, Monte Carlo Principles and Neutron Transport Problems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1969).

Spencer, D. E.

P. Moon, D. E. Spencer, “Illumination from a Non-Uniform Sky,” Illum. Eng. N.Y. 37, 707 (1942).

Star, J. L.

Tanaka, M.

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of Oceanic Turbidity and Index of Refraction of Hydrosols on the Flux of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere–Ocean System,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).

Wells, M. B.

Zweifel, P. F.

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Boundary Layer Meteorol. (1)

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Atmospheric Effects in the Remote Sensing of Phytoplankton Pigments,” Boundary Layer Meteorol. 18, 299 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

C. A. Adams, G. W. Kattawar, “Radiative Transfer in Spherical Shell Atmospheres 1. Rayleigh Scattering,” Icarus 35, 139 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Illum. Eng. N.Y. (1)

P. Moon, D. E. Spencer, “Illumination from a Non-Uniform Sky,” Illum. Eng. N.Y. 37, 707 (1942).

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. E. Hansen, “Exact and Approximate Solution for Multiple Scattering by Cloudy and Hazy Planetary Atmospheres,” J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 478 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Potter, “The Delta Function Approximation in Radiative Transfer Theory,” J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 943 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

M. Tanaka, T. Nakajima, “Effects of Oceanic Turbidity and Index of Refraction of Hydrosols on the Flux of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere–Ocean System,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 18, 93 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Sci. Eng. (1)

M. H. Kalos, “On the Estimation of Flux at a Point by Monte Carlo,” Nucl. Sci. Eng. 16, 111 (1963).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

G. W. Kattawar, T. J. Humphreys, G. N. Plass, “Radiative Transfer in an Atmosphere Ocean System: A Matrix Operator Approach,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 160, 123 (1978).

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

D. K. Clark, “Phytoplankton Pigment Algorithms for the Nimbus-7 CZCS,” in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981), pp. 227–237.

J. Spanier, E. M. Gelbard, Monte Carlo Principles and Neutron Transport Problems (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1969).

H. R. Gordon, A. Y. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Visible Satellite Imagery: A Review (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Oxford U. P., London, 1950).

H. C. van de Hulst, Multiple Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1980).

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).

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