Abstract

Ethylene plume profile measurements and mass flow estimations of diffuse ethylene leakages from a petrochemical plant have been performed with a computer-automated CO2 laser long-path absorption instrument. The total ethylene mass flow was estimated using a trace gas method. Comparative measurements were also performed.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Sivertsen, “Estimation of Diffuse Hydrocarbon Leakages from Petrochemical Plants,” J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 33, 323 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Persson, S. Lundqvist, B. Marthinsson, S. T. Eng, “Computer-Automated CO2-Laser Long-Path Absorption System for Air Quality Monitoring in the Working Environment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 998 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote Probing of the Atmosphere Using a CO2 DIAL System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, M. S. Shumate, U. Persson, “Analysis of Errors Caused by Optical Interference Effects in Wavelength-Diverse CO2 Laser Long-Path Systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985), same issue.
  5. U. Persson, J. Johansson, B. Marthinsson, S. T. Eng, “Ethylene Mass Flow Measurement with an Automatic CO2 Laser Long-Path Absorption System,” Appl. Opt. 21, 4417 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Gasferanalyse mit CO2-lasern: “Fortsetzung und Abschluss der Analytischen laboruntersuchungen,” Batelle Institut e.V. Frankfurt No. 01 TL 018A-AK/RT/WRT 2077.
  7. Data obtained from B. Sivertsen, NILU, Postbox 130, N-2001 Lillestrom, Norway.
  8. Range finder: Wild Distomat DI 3.

1985 (1)

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, M. S. Shumate, U. Persson, “Analysis of Errors Caused by Optical Interference Effects in Wavelength-Diverse CO2 Laser Long-Path Systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985), same issue.

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

B. Sivertsen, “Estimation of Diffuse Hydrocarbon Leakages from Petrochemical Plants,” J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 33, 323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote Probing of the Atmosphere Using a CO2 DIAL System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ahlberg, H.

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, M. S. Shumate, U. Persson, “Analysis of Errors Caused by Optical Interference Effects in Wavelength-Diverse CO2 Laser Long-Path Systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985), same issue.

Eng, S. T.

Johansson, J.

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote Probing of the Atmosphere Using a CO2 DIAL System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lundqvist, S.

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, M. S. Shumate, U. Persson, “Analysis of Errors Caused by Optical Interference Effects in Wavelength-Diverse CO2 Laser Long-Path Systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985), same issue.

U. Persson, S. Lundqvist, B. Marthinsson, S. T. Eng, “Computer-Automated CO2-Laser Long-Path Absorption System for Air Quality Monitoring in the Working Environment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 998 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marthinsson, B.

Menyuk, N.

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote Probing of the Atmosphere Using a CO2 DIAL System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Persson, U.

Shumate, M. S.

H. Ahlberg, S. Lundqvist, M. S. Shumate, U. Persson, “Analysis of Errors Caused by Optical Interference Effects in Wavelength-Diverse CO2 Laser Long-Path Systems,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985), same issue.

Sivertsen, B.

B. Sivertsen, “Estimation of Diffuse Hydrocarbon Leakages from Petrochemical Plants,” J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 33, 323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. K. Killinger, N. Menyuk, “Remote Probing of the Atmosphere Using a CO2 DIAL System,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1917 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. (1)

B. Sivertsen, “Estimation of Diffuse Hydrocarbon Leakages from Petrochemical Plants,” J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. 33, 323 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Gasferanalyse mit CO2-lasern: “Fortsetzung und Abschluss der Analytischen laboruntersuchungen,” Batelle Institut e.V. Frankfurt No. 01 TL 018A-AK/RT/WRT 2077.

Data obtained from B. Sivertsen, NILU, Postbox 130, N-2001 Lillestrom, Norway.

Range finder: Wild Distomat DI 3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the laser system. The laser control and signal processing are fully computer automated. A flip mirror is used instead of a beam splitter to measure laser power.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

View of the Esso Chemical west factory area. The laser system, reflectors, and SF6 and ethylene samplers are marked. The main ethylene leakages are around the SF6 release points.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements at the Esso Chemical west factory area of (a) ethylene and (b) SF6 concentrations along a 191-m long measurement path perpendicular to the wind direction on 2 May 1984.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

View of the northwest part of the factory area at Esso Chemical. The laser system, reflectors, and SF6 and ethylene samplers are marked. The main ethylene leakages are around the SF6 release points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurements at the Esso Chemical northwest factory area of (a) ethylene concentration measurement before the SF6 release; (b) SF6 concentration measurement during the release; (c) ethylene concentration measurement after the SF6 release. The distances to reflectors 1–3 are 104, 142, and 175 m, respectively. The measurements are made on 3 May 1984.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

View of the Esso Chemical east factory area where the ethylene plume profile measurement was performed along the five marked measurement paths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ethylene plume concentration at the Esso Chemical east factory area on 13 Sept. 1984.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Systematic error in the measured ethylene and SF6 concentrations vs concentration measurement path lengths.

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