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  1. T. Findakly, B. Chen, “Single-Mode Integrated-Optical 1 × N Star Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 549 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. G. Walker, C. D. W. Wilkinson, J. A. H. Wilkinson, “Integrated Optical Waveguiding Structures made by Silver Ion-Exchange in Glass. 1: The Propagation Characteristics of Stripe Ion-Exchanged Waveguides; a Theoretical and Experimental Investigation,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1923 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. G. Walker, C. D. W. Wilkinson, “Integrated Optical Waveguiding Structures made by Silver Ion-Exchange in Glass. 2: Directional Couplers and Bends,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1929 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Honda, E. M. Garmire, K. E. Wilson, “Characteristics of an Integrated Optics Ring Resonator Fabricated in Glass,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 714 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, “Mode Dispersion in Diffused Channel Waveguides by the Effective Index Method,” Appl. Opt. 16, 113 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics. A Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Stewart, C. A. Millar, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. DeLaRue, “Planar Optical Waveguides formed by Silver-Ion Migration in Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Doremus, “Ion Exchange in Glasses,” in Ion-Exchange, Vol. 2, J. A. Marinsky, Ed. (Dekker, New York, 1969).
  9. Y. Okamura, S. Sato, S. Yamamoto, “Simple Method of Measuring Propagation Properties of Integrated Optical Waveguides: an Improvement,” Appl. Opt. 24, 57 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. L. Yip, J. Albert, “Characterization of Planar Optical Waveguides by K+–ion Exchange in Glass,” Opt. Lett. 10, 151 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

K. Honda, E. M. Garmire, K. E. Wilson, “Characteristics of an Integrated Optics Ring Resonator Fabricated in Glass,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (1)

T. Findakly, B. Chen, “Single-Mode Integrated-Optical 1 × N Star Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 549 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

G. Stewart, C. A. Millar, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. DeLaRue, “Planar Optical Waveguides formed by Silver-Ion Migration in Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Hocker, W. K. Burns, “Mode Dispersion in Diffused Channel Waveguides by the Effective Index Method,” Appl. Opt. 16, 113 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1958 (1)

F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics. A Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Burns, W. K.

Chen, B.

T. Findakly, B. Chen, “Single-Mode Integrated-Optical 1 × N Star Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 549 (1982).
[CrossRef]

DeLaRue, R. M.

G. Stewart, C. A. Millar, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. DeLaRue, “Planar Optical Waveguides formed by Silver-Ion Migration in Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Doremus, R. H.

R. H. Doremus, “Ion Exchange in Glasses,” in Ion-Exchange, Vol. 2, J. A. Marinsky, Ed. (Dekker, New York, 1969).

Findakly, T.

T. Findakly, B. Chen, “Single-Mode Integrated-Optical 1 × N Star Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 549 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E. M.

K. Honda, E. M. Garmire, K. E. Wilson, “Characteristics of an Integrated Optics Ring Resonator Fabricated in Glass,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Helfferich, F.

F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics. A Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Hocker, G. B.

Honda, K.

K. Honda, E. M. Garmire, K. E. Wilson, “Characteristics of an Integrated Optics Ring Resonator Fabricated in Glass,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Laybourn, P. J. R.

G. Stewart, C. A. Millar, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. DeLaRue, “Planar Optical Waveguides formed by Silver-Ion Migration in Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Millar, C. A.

G. Stewart, C. A. Millar, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. DeLaRue, “Planar Optical Waveguides formed by Silver-Ion Migration in Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, Y.

Plesset, M. S.

F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics. A Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

Stewart, G.

G. Stewart, C. A. Millar, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. DeLaRue, “Planar Optical Waveguides formed by Silver-Ion Migration in Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Walker, R. G.

Wilkinson, C. D. W.

Wilkinson, J. A. H.

Wilson, K. E.

K. Honda, E. M. Garmire, K. E. Wilson, “Characteristics of an Integrated Optics Ring Resonator Fabricated in Glass,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yip, G. L.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Findakly, B. Chen, “Single-Mode Integrated-Optical 1 × N Star Coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 549 (1982).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Stewart, C. A. Millar, P. J. R. Laybourn, C. D. W. Wilkinson, R. M. DeLaRue, “Planar Optical Waveguides formed by Silver-Ion Migration in Glass,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 192 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

K. Honda, E. M. Garmire, K. E. Wilson, “Characteristics of an Integrated Optics Ring Resonator Fabricated in Glass,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol. LT-2, 714 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Helfferich, M. S. Plesset, “Ion Exchange Kinetics. A Nonlinear Diffusion Problem,” J. Chem. Phys. 28, 418 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

R. H. Doremus, “Ion Exchange in Glasses,” in Ion-Exchange, Vol. 2, J. A. Marinsky, Ed. (Dekker, New York, 1969).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of refractive-index change with normalized depth for potassium ion-exchange. [μ is a parameter of the power series solution defined in Eq. (4.2.4) from Ref. 7.]

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variation of refractive-index change with normalized depth for silver ion-exchange.

Equations (5)

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c t = x ( D 1 1 α c c x ) ,
c = c 1 / c 0 α = 1 ( D 1 / D 0 ) ,
y = x / ( 2 D 1 t )
2 y d c d y = d d y ( 1 1 α c d c d y ) ; c ( ) = 0 .
Δ n ( y ) / Δ n s = c ( y ) / c ( 0 ) .

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