## Abstract

Spatial variations in the polarization properties of multiple scattering have been observed in the lidar backscattering from atmospheric water droplet clouds. To detect these effects, the lidar receivers have been modified to incorporate spatial filters in the focal plane which block singly scattered radiation and transmit muliply backscattered radiation through sectors oriented at five azimuthal angles between 0 and 90° to the direction of the transmitted linear polarization. The parallel and perpendicular polarized components of the lidar multiple scattering have been measured as a function of pulse penetration depth for different cloud formations. The anisotropic distributions observed are found to resemble those previously recorded in our laboratory measurements on clouds of spherical scatterers. In this paper also, results of Mie scattering calculations are summarized which show that the observed polarization anisotropy originates directly from the polarization properties of the single scattering from spherical particles.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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### Equations (5)

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(1)
$$\begin{array}{ll}{E}_{r}={S}_{1}\left(\theta \right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{exp}\left(-ikR+ikz\right)\hfill & {E}_{or}/ikR\hfill \end{array},$$
(2)
$$\begin{array}{ll}{E}_{l}={S}_{2}\left(\theta \right)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{exp}\left(-ikR+ikz\right)\hfill & {E}_{ol}/ikR\hfill \end{array},$$
(3)
$${S}_{1,2}\left(\theta \right)=\sqrt{{i}_{1,2}\left(\theta \right)}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{exp}\left(i{\delta}_{1,2}\right).$$
(4)
$$\begin{array}{ll}{I}_{\parallel}=\hfill & {E}_{sx}{{E}^{*}}_{sx}=[\sqrt{\frac{{P}_{2}\left(\theta \right)}{4\pi}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\theta \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{cos}}^{2}\varphi \hfill \\ \hfill & {+\sqrt{\frac{{P}_{1}\left(\theta \right)}{4\pi}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}{\text{sin}}^{2}\varphi ]}^{2}{I}_{\parallel}^{\xb0}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{\pi {r}^{2}Q}{{R}^{2}},\hfill \end{array}$$
(5)
$$\begin{array}{ll}{I}_{\perp}=\hfill & {E}_{sy}{{E}^{*}}_{sy}=[\sqrt{\frac{{P}_{2}\left(\theta \right)}{4\pi}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\theta \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\varphi \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\varphi \hfill \\ \hfill & {-\sqrt{\frac{{P}_{1}\left(\theta \right)}{4\pi}}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{sin}\varphi \phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\text{cos}\varphi ]}^{2}{I}_{\parallel}^{\xb0}\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}\frac{\pi {r}^{2}Q}{{R}^{2}},\hfill \end{array}$$