Abstract

Remote measurements of trace constituents using an active technique such as lidar have been made possible for the rapid development of powerful tunable laser sources. This paper, originally presented at the OSA Topical Meeting on Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, in January 1985, illustrates the differential absorption lidar technique used for the measurement of the ozone vertical distribution in the troposphere and the atmosphere.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Schotland, “The Determination of the Vertical Profile of Atmospheric Gases by Means of a Ground-Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964).
  2. R. L. Byer, M. Garbuny, “Pollutant Detection by Absorption Using Mie Scattering and Topographic Targets as Retroreflectors,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1496 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. Megie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR Differential Absorption Lidar for Global Measurements of Atmospheric Species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, C7, 4947 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, “Stratospheric Aerosol Mass and Latitudinal Distribution of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 877 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  8. U.S. Standard Atmosphere (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976), 227 pp.
  9. A. J. Krueger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. T. Thompson, J. M. Hoell, W. R. Wade, “Measurements of SO2 Absorption Coefficients Using a Tunable Dye Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3040 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. D. Stewart, S. Hameed, J. Pinto, “The Natural and Perturbed Troposphere,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-16, 30 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. H. Seinfeld, Air Pollution–Physical and Chemical Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).
  15. E. C. Y. Inn, Y. Tanaka, “Absorption Coefficient of Ozone in the Ultraviolet and Visible Regions,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 870 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. M. Bass, “Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections of Ozone: Measurement Results and Error Analysis,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1984), p. 7.2.
  17. zone,” Ann. Phys. Paris 72, 709 (1953).
  18. G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature London 270, 329 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Bos, “Versatile High-Power Single-Longitudinal-Mode Pulsed Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1886 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, T. Shibata, M. Hirono, M. Fujiwara, “Measurement of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution with a Xe–Cl Lidar: Estimated Influence of Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4175 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, J. Werner, “Differential Absorption Measurements with Fixed Frequency IR and UV Lasers,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).
  23. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Monitoring of the Ozone Vertical Distribution in the Troposphere and Stratosphere,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G. Mégie, Ed. (Aix en Provence, France, 1984), pp. 247–250.
  24. M.L. Chanin, “The Intercomparison Campaign Held in France in June 1981: Description of the Campaign,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 707 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Measurements of the Ozone Vertical Distribution (0–25 km): Comparison of Various Instruments, GAP-Observatoire de Haute Provence, June 1981,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 791 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Ozone Distribution During the June 1981 Intercomparison Campaign GAP/OHP,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 717 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50-km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3–7 Sept. 1984 (D. Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), 842 pp.
  29. H. U. Dutsch, “Vertical Ozone Distribution and Tropospheric Ozone,” in Proceedings, NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atmospheric Ozone, M. Nicolet, A. C. Aikin, Eds. (U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1979).
  30. J. Pelon, P. Flamant, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, “Intrusion d’ozone d’origine polaire aux latitudes moyennes: Mise en évidence par sondage laser,” C.R. Acad. Sci., 292, 319 (1981).

1983 (4)

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, “Stratospheric Aerosol Mass and Latitudinal Distribution of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 877 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M.L. Chanin, “The Intercomparison Campaign Held in France in June 1981: Description of the Campaign,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 707 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Measurements of the Ozone Vertical Distribution (0–25 km): Comparison of Various Instruments, GAP-Observatoire de Haute Provence, June 1981,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 791 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Ozone Distribution During the June 1981 Intercomparison Campaign GAP/OHP,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, C7, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, “Intrusion d’ozone d’origine polaire aux latitudes moyennes: Mise en évidence par sondage laser,” C.R. Acad. Sci., 292, 319 (1981).

C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Bos, “Versatile High-Power Single-Longitudinal-Mode Pulsed Dye Laser,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1886 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

1979 (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

R. D. Stewart, S. Hameed, J. Pinto, “The Natural and Perturbed Troposphere,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-16, 30 (1978).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature London 270, 329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

A. J. Krueger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. T. Thompson, J. M. Hoell, W. R. Wade, “Measurements of SO2 Absorption Coefficients Using a Tunable Dye Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1953 (2)

Allain, J. Y.

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature London 270, 329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bass, A. M.

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Bass, “Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections of Ozone: Measurement Results and Error Analysis,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1984), p. 7.2.

Blamont, J. E.

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature London 270, 329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bos, F.

Byer, R. L.

Cahen, C.

C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M. L.

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, “Intrusion d’ozone d’origine polaire aux latitudes moyennes: Mise en évidence par sondage laser,” C.R. Acad. Sci., 292, 319 (1981).

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature London 270, 329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chanin, M.L.

M.L. Chanin, “The Intercomparison Campaign Held in France in June 1981: Description of the Campaign,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 707 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Dutsch, H. U.

H. U. Dutsch, “Vertical Ozone Distribution and Tropospheric Ozone,” in Proceedings, NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atmospheric Ozone, M. Nicolet, A. C. Aikin, Eds. (U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1979).

Flamant, P.

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, “Intrusion d’ozone d’origine polaire aux latitudes moyennes: Mise en évidence par sondage laser,” C.R. Acad. Sci., 292, 319 (1981).

Fujiwara, M.

Garbuny, M.

Gildwarg, P.

C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hameed, S.

R. D. Stewart, S. Hameed, J. Pinto, “The Natural and Perturbed Troposphere,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-16, 30 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hirono, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, T. Shibata, M. Hirono, M. Fujiwara, “Measurement of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution with a Xe–Cl Lidar: Estimated Influence of Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4175 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hoell, J. M.

R. T. Thompson, J. M. Hoell, W. R. Wade, “Measurements of SO2 Absorption Coefficients Using a Tunable Dye Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Inn, E. C. Y.

Jegou, J. P.

C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, A. J.

A. J. Krueger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, A. H.

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ledford, A. E.

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, T. Shibata, M. Hirono, M. Fujiwara, “Measurement of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution with a Xe–Cl Lidar: Estimated Influence of Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4175 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, “Stratospheric Aerosol Mass and Latitudinal Distribution of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 877 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Megie, G.

G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Measurements of the Ozone Vertical Distribution (0–25 km): Comparison of Various Instruments, GAP-Observatoire de Haute Provence, June 1981,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 791 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Ozone Distribution During the June 1981 Intercomparison Campaign GAP/OHP,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, C7, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, “Intrusion d’ozone d’origine polaire aux latitudes moyennes: Mise en évidence par sondage laser,” C.R. Acad. Sci., 292, 319 (1981).

G. Megie, R. T. Menzies, “Complementarity of UV and IR Differential Absorption Lidar for Global Measurements of Atmospheric Species,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1173 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature London 270, 329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Monitoring of the Ozone Vertical Distribution in the Troposphere and Stratosphere,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G. Mégie, Ed. (Aix en Provence, France, 1984), pp. 247–250.

Menzies, R. T.

Minzer, R. A.

A. J. Krueger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Ozone Distribution During the June 1981 Intercomparison Campaign GAP/OHP,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Measurements of the Ozone Vertical Distribution (0–25 km): Comparison of Various Instruments, GAP-Observatoire de Haute Provence, June 1981,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 791 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, C7, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, “Intrusion d’ozone d’origine polaire aux latitudes moyennes: Mise en évidence par sondage laser,” C.R. Acad. Sci., 292, 319 (1981).

C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Monitoring of the Ozone Vertical Distribution in the Troposphere and Stratosphere,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G. Mégie, Ed. (Aix en Provence, France, 1984), pp. 247–250.

Pinto, J.

R. D. Stewart, S. Hameed, J. Pinto, “The Natural and Perturbed Troposphere,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-16, 30 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Porteneuve, J.

C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rothe, K. W.

K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, J. Werner, “Differential Absorption Measurements with Fixed Frequency IR and UV Lasers,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50-km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3–7 Sept. 1984 (D. Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), 842 pp.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “The Determination of the Vertical Profile of Atmospheric Gases by Means of a Ground-Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964).

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, Air Pollution–Physical and Chemical Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

Shibata, T.

Stewart, R. D.

R. D. Stewart, S. Hameed, J. Pinto, “The Natural and Perturbed Troposphere,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-16, 30 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Swissler, T. J.

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, “Stratospheric Aerosol Mass and Latitudinal Distribution of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 877 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

Thompson, R. T.

R. T. Thompson, J. M. Hoell, W. R. Wade, “Measurements of SO2 Absorption Coefficients Using a Tunable Dye Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Uchino, O.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, T. Shibata, M. Hirono, M. Fujiwara, “Measurement of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution with a Xe–Cl Lidar: Estimated Influence of Aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 19, 4175 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wade, W. R.

R. T. Thompson, J. M. Hoell, W. R. Wade, “Measurements of SO2 Absorption Coefficients Using a Tunable Dye Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Walther, H.

K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, J. Werner, “Differential Absorption Measurements with Fixed Frequency IR and UV Lasers,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50-km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3–7 Sept. 1984 (D. Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), 842 pp.

Werner, J.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50-km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3–7 Sept. 1984 (D. Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), 842 pp.

K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, J. Werner, “Differential Absorption Measurements with Fixed Frequency IR and UV Lasers,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

Yamamura, H.

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. Paris (1)

zone,” Ann. Phys. Paris 72, 709 (1953).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, H. Yamamura, M. Hirono, “Observation of Stratospheric Vertical Ozone Distribution by a XeCl Lidar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 807 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C.R. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. Pelon, P. Flamant, M. L. Chanin, G. Megie, “Intrusion d’ozone d’origine polaire aux latitudes moyennes: Mise en évidence par sondage laser,” C.R. Acad. Sci., 292, 319 (1981).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

M. P. McCormick, T. J. Swissler, “Stratospheric Aerosol Mass and Latitudinal Distribution of the El Chichon Eruption Cloud for October 1982,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 877 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Uchino, M. Maeda, M. Hirono, “Applications of Excimer Lasers to Laser-Radar Observations of the Upper Atmosphere,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 1094 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. (1)

R. D. Stewart, S. Hameed, J. Pinto, “The Natural and Perturbed Troposphere,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-16, 30 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. T. Thompson, J. M. Hoell, W. R. Wade, “Measurements of SO2 Absorption Coefficients Using a Tunable Dye Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3040 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Monitoring in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: Evaluation and Operation of a Ground Based Lidar Station,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, C7, 4947 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Krueger, R. A. Minzer, “A Mid-Latitude Ozone Model for the 1976 U.S. Standard Atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 4477 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A (1)

A. M. Bass, A. E. Ledford, A. H. Laufer, “Extinction Coefficients of NO2 and N2O4,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. Sect. A 80, 143 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nature London (2)

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Ozone Vertical Distribution and Total Content as Monitored Using a Ground Based Active Remote Sensing System,” Nature London 299, 137 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. Y. Allain, M. L. Chanin, J. E. Blamont, “Vertical Profile of Stratospheric Ozone by Lidar Sounding from the Ground,” Nature London 270, 329 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (3)

M.L. Chanin, “The Intercomparison Campaign Held in France in June 1981: Description of the Campaign,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 707 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Megie, J. Pelon, “Measurements of the Ozone Vertical Distribution (0–25 km): Comparison of Various Instruments, GAP-Observatoire de Haute Provence, June 1981,” Planet. Space Sci. 39, 791 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Measurements of the Vertical Ozone Distribution During the June 1981 Intercomparison Campaign GAP/OHP,” Planet. Space Sci. 31, 717 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

C. Cahen, J. P. Jegou, J. Pelon, P. Gildwarg, J. Porteneuve, “Wavelength Stabilization and Control of the Emission of Pulsed Dye Lasers by Means of a Multibeam Fizeau Interferometer,” Rev. Phys. Appl. 16, 353 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, J. Werner, “Differential Absorption Measurements with Fixed Frequency IR and UV Lasers,” in Optical and Laser Remote Sensing, D. K. Killinger, A. Mooradian, Eds. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1983).

J. Pelon, G. Megie, “Lidar Monitoring of the Ozone Vertical Distribution in the Troposphere and Stratosphere,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Laser Radar Conference, G. Mégie, Ed. (Aix en Provence, France, 1984), pp. 247–250.

R. M. Schotland, “The Determination of the Vertical Profile of Atmospheric Gases by Means of a Ground-Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964).

J. H. Seinfeld, Air Pollution–Physical and Chemical Fundamentals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1975).

A. M. Bass, “Ultraviolet Absorption Cross Sections of Ozone: Measurement Results and Error Analysis,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece (Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1984), p. 7.2.

U.S. Standard Atmosphere (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976), 227 pp.

J. Werner, K. W. Rothe, H. Walther, “Measurements of the Ozone Profile up to 50-km Altitude by Differential Absorption Laser Radar,” in Proceedings, Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Halkidiki, Greece, 3–7 Sept. 1984 (D. Reidel, Hingham, Mass., 1985), 842 pp.

H. U. Dutsch, “Vertical Ozone Distribution and Tropospheric Ozone,” in Proceedings, NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atmospheric Ozone, M. Nicolet, A. C. Aikin, Eds. (U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., 1979).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Altitude dependence of the optimum wavelength λ (in nm), which minimizes the statistical error , for each altitude level (Δλ = ∞).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Variations of the statistical error , relative to its minimum value 10 (obtained for τ 10 0 = 1 . 1) as a function of the on-line optical thickness τ10: curve 1, Δλ = ∞; curve 2, Δλ = 5 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the statistical error 1 as a function of Δλ for different optical thicknesses τ1Ro corresponding to different wavelengths λ or ranges. 1 is normalized to its minimum value (from Ref. 4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vertical ozone distribution as measured by an ECC sonde and lidar at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (June 1981) (from Ref. 4).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ozone concentration profile measured by lidar at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (44°N, 50°E) on 1 Dec. 1981 (dashed line) and 2 Dec. 1981 (dotted line) at 0-h UT compared with the profile obtained by a Brewer Mast sonde launched at Bisacrosse (44°N, 0,5°W) on 30 Nov. 1981 (solid line) (from Ref. 10).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Vertical distribution of ozone concentration in the upper stratosphere (25–50 km) as measured by XeCl lidar (solid line), Brewer Mast sondes (dotted line), and the Umkehr technique (solid vertical lines) at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The statistical errors are shown for each system.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Isocontours of the ozone number density (in 1011 cm−3) as a function of altitude (vertical axis) and time in minutes for a 3-h period of time starting at 22:00 on 3 Dec. 1981 at the Observatoire de Haute Provence.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Characteristics of Lidar Systems in Operation at the Observatoire de Haute Provence for Lidar Measurements of the Ozone Vertical Distribution

Tables Icon

Table II Errors Related to Lidar Measurements of the Ozone Vertical Distribution for Various Altitude Ranges and Emitters (see Table I)

Equations (16)

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n r = n 0 · A 0 R 2 ( β R + β M + β i ) · Δ R · exp [ 2 ( τ R + τ M + τ i ) ] ,
n λ R = n e λ · Δ R · A 0 R 2 β λ R · ξ · ξ · exp [ 2 ( τ λ R 0 + τ λ R e ) ] ,
τ λ R o = 0 R σ λ R N 0 ( R ) d R ,
Δ τ λ 1 o = 1 2 ln n λ 1 n λ 2 + ln β λ 2 R 1 2 β λ 1 R 1 2 Δ τ λ 1 e ,
Δ τ λ R o = σ λ R · N 0 ( R ) · Δ R .
Δ τ 1 R Δ τ 2 R = ln n 22 n 11 n 12 n 21 + ln β 12 β 21 β L 11 β 22 ,
S λ R = n λ R ( n λ R + n B + n D ) 1 / 2 ,
Δ τ 1 R o Δ τ 2 R o = 1 2 ln n 22 n 11 n 12 n 21 .
N 0 ( R ) = Δ τ 1 R o Δ τ 2 R o ( σ 1 σ 2 ) Δ R .
1 = 1 2 τ R o n 0 ( f 1 2 + f 2 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
K = τ R o Δ τ R o = 0 R N 0 ( R ) d R N 0 ( R ) Δ R
f λ 2 = exp ( 2 τ λ 1 ) β λ n e λ P λ exp ( 2 τ λ 1 ) ( { 1 + exp [ 2 ( τ λ o / K ) ] } + X λ o ( 1 + 4 exp ( μ λ 1 ) exp [ 4 ( τ λ 1 + τ λ o / K ) ] ) ;
μ λ = ln [ ( 1 + Δ R R ) ( β λ 1 β λ 2 ) 1 / 2 ] + Δ τ λ e ;
X λ o = n B + n D n λ 1 exp ( 2 τ λ e ) ;
2 = K · Δ R τ R o . G ( R , λ ) · Δ λ λ 1 ,
G ( R , λ ) = 2 ( 1 m 4 ) 1 r λ R ( r λ R ) 2 ( 1 h 1 H ) + m α ρ + 4 α M .

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