Abstract

A new 2-D photon-counting camera, the PAPA (precision analog photon address) detector has been built, tested, and used successfully for the acquisition of speckle imaging data. The camera has 512 × 512 pixels and operates at count rates of at least 200,000/sec. In this paper we present technical details on the camera and include some of the laboratory and astronomical results which demonstrate the detector's capabilities.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New Two-Dimensional Photon Camera,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360 (1982).
  2. P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Effects of Photon Noise on Speckle Image Reconstruction with the Knox-Thompson Algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 47, 91 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analysing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).
  4. K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, “Recovery of Images from Atmospherically Degraded Short-Exposure Photographs,” Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Nisenson, J. Apt, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research,” Icarus 53, 465 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Gonsiorowski, “Variable Threshold Discrimination in a Photon-Imaging Detector,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1060 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

1983

P. Nisenson, J. Apt, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research,” Icarus 53, 465 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Effects of Photon Noise on Speckle Image Reconstruction with the Knox-Thompson Algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 47, 91 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New Two-Dimensional Photon Camera,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360 (1982).

1974

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, “Recovery of Images from Atmospherically Degraded Short-Exposure Photographs,” Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analysing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).

Apt, J.

P. Nisenson, J. Apt, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research,” Icarus 53, 465 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Gonsiorowski, T.

Goody, R.

P. Nisenson, J. Apt, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research,” Icarus 53, 465 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Knox, K. T.

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, “Recovery of Images from Atmospherically Degraded Short-Exposure Photographs,” Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Labeyrie, A.

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analysing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).

Mertz, L.

C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New Two-Dimensional Photon Camera,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360 (1982).

Nisenson, P.

P. Nisenson, J. Apt, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research,” Icarus 53, 465 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Effects of Photon Noise on Speckle Image Reconstruction with the Knox-Thompson Algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 47, 91 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Papaliolios, C.

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Effects of Photon Noise on Speckle Image Reconstruction with the Knox-Thompson Algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 47, 91 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. Nisenson, J. Apt, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research,” Icarus 53, 465 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New Two-Dimensional Photon Camera,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360 (1982).

Thompson, B. J.

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, “Recovery of Images from Atmospherically Degraded Short-Exposure Photographs,” Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

A. Labeyrie, “Attainment of Diffraction Limited Resolution in Large Telescopes by Fourier Analysing Speckle Patterns in Star Images,” Astron. Astrophys. 6, 85 (1970).

Astrophys. J.

K. T. Knox, B. J. Thompson, “Recovery of Images from Atmospherically Degraded Short-Exposure Photographs,” Astrophys. J. 193, L45 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Icarus

P. Nisenson, J. Apt, R. Goody, C. Papaliolios, “Speckle Imaging for Planetary Research,” Icarus 53, 465 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

P. Nisenson, C. Papaliolios, “Effects of Photon Noise on Speckle Image Reconstruction with the Knox-Thompson Algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 47, 91 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

C. Papaliolios, L. Mertz, “New Two-Dimensional Photon Camera,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 331, 360 (1982).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the PAPA two-dimensional photon detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Principle of Gray-coded masks for photon position detection.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Direct images recorded with the PAPA detector at a data rate of 50,000 counts/sec.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reconstruction of SAO 93840 using 6000 frames at 60,000 counts/sec: (a) direct sum, (b) image, (c) power spectrum, (d) recovered transform phase.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Direct images of SAO 93840 for different integration times: (a) 0.001 sec, (b) 0.01 sec, (c) 0.1 sec, (d) 100 sec.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of frame (exposure) time on the power spectrum for SAO 93840: (a) 20 msec, (b) 80 msec, (c) 180 msec, (d) 360 msec.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of frame (exposure) time on the reconstructed image for SAO 93840: (a) 20 msec, (b) 80 msec, (c) 180 msec, (d) 360 msec.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Convergence of the power spectrum for SAO 93840 as a function of number of frames: (a) 6000, (b) 1600, (c) 400, (d) 100.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Convergence of the reconstructed image for SAO 93840 as a function of number of frames: (a) 6000, (b) 1600, (c) 400, (d) 100.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Delta Orionis and its companion. Binary separation = 0.3 sec of arc, V (magnitude difference) = 3: (a) image, (b) autocorrelation, (c) power spectrum.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Gamma Orionis and its companion. Binary separation = 0.8 sec of arc, V (magnitude difference) = 5: (a) image, (b) autocorrelation, (c) power spectrum.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Reconstruction of the resolved (0.3 sec of arc) asteroid Vesta (data rate of 70,000 counts/sec): (a) image, (b) autocorrelation, (c) power spectrum.

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