Abstract

Micro-Raman spectroscopy is shown to be a nondestructive technique suitable for analyzing bubbles in glass. Using a 90° scattering geometry it is possible to identify various gases in bubbles entrapped in different glass samples. A very accurate optical alignment is possible by calculating focus size, focus position, and the volume from which the scattered light is collected. In this way bubbles with diameters down to 35 μm can be measured. In addition to the rotational spectra even the much weaker vibrational spectra, which are easier to analyze, can be measured.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. M. Krol, “The Application of Raman Spectroscopy in the Study of Glass Melting and Fining,” Riv. Staz. Vetro 5, 194 (1982).
  2. A. A. Naqvi, “The Refining of a Soda-Lime-Silica Glass with Antimony,” Thesis, Department of Glass Technology, U. Sheffield (1969).
  3. M. Cable, A. R. Clarke, M. A. Haroon, “Effect of Arsenic on Composition of Gas in Seed during Refining of Glass,” Glass Technol. 10, 1 (1969).
  4. G. J. Rosasco, J. H. Simmons, “Investigation of Gas Content of Inclusions in Glass by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy,” Ceram. Bull. 53, 626 (1974).
  5. R. Shuker, R. W. Gammon, “Low-Frequency Vibrational Light Scattering in Viscous Liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4784 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. J. Barrett, N. I. Adams, “Raman Scattering in Ultra-Small Gas Samples,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 311 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Verweij, “Melting and Fining of Arsenic-Containing Silicate Glass Batches,” Thesis, Technological University of Eindhoven (1980).

1982 (1)

D. M. Krol, “The Application of Raman Spectroscopy in the Study of Glass Melting and Fining,” Riv. Staz. Vetro 5, 194 (1982).

1974 (1)

G. J. Rosasco, J. H. Simmons, “Investigation of Gas Content of Inclusions in Glass by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy,” Ceram. Bull. 53, 626 (1974).

1971 (1)

R. Shuker, R. W. Gammon, “Low-Frequency Vibrational Light Scattering in Viscous Liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4784 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. Cable, A. R. Clarke, M. A. Haroon, “Effect of Arsenic on Composition of Gas in Seed during Refining of Glass,” Glass Technol. 10, 1 (1969).

1968 (1)

Adams, N. I.

Barrett, J. J.

Cable, M.

M. Cable, A. R. Clarke, M. A. Haroon, “Effect of Arsenic on Composition of Gas in Seed during Refining of Glass,” Glass Technol. 10, 1 (1969).

Clarke, A. R.

M. Cable, A. R. Clarke, M. A. Haroon, “Effect of Arsenic on Composition of Gas in Seed during Refining of Glass,” Glass Technol. 10, 1 (1969).

Gammon, R. W.

R. Shuker, R. W. Gammon, “Low-Frequency Vibrational Light Scattering in Viscous Liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4784 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Haroon, M. A.

M. Cable, A. R. Clarke, M. A. Haroon, “Effect of Arsenic on Composition of Gas in Seed during Refining of Glass,” Glass Technol. 10, 1 (1969).

Krol, D. M.

D. M. Krol, “The Application of Raman Spectroscopy in the Study of Glass Melting and Fining,” Riv. Staz. Vetro 5, 194 (1982).

Naqvi, A. A.

A. A. Naqvi, “The Refining of a Soda-Lime-Silica Glass with Antimony,” Thesis, Department of Glass Technology, U. Sheffield (1969).

Rosasco, G. J.

G. J. Rosasco, J. H. Simmons, “Investigation of Gas Content of Inclusions in Glass by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy,” Ceram. Bull. 53, 626 (1974).

Shuker, R.

R. Shuker, R. W. Gammon, “Low-Frequency Vibrational Light Scattering in Viscous Liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4784 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. H.

G. J. Rosasco, J. H. Simmons, “Investigation of Gas Content of Inclusions in Glass by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy,” Ceram. Bull. 53, 626 (1974).

Verweij, H.

H. Verweij, “Melting and Fining of Arsenic-Containing Silicate Glass Batches,” Thesis, Technological University of Eindhoven (1980).

Ceram. Bull. (1)

G. J. Rosasco, J. H. Simmons, “Investigation of Gas Content of Inclusions in Glass by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy,” Ceram. Bull. 53, 626 (1974).

Glass Technol. (1)

M. Cable, A. R. Clarke, M. A. Haroon, “Effect of Arsenic on Composition of Gas in Seed during Refining of Glass,” Glass Technol. 10, 1 (1969).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Shuker, R. W. Gammon, “Low-Frequency Vibrational Light Scattering in Viscous Liquids,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4784 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Riv. Staz. Vetro (1)

D. M. Krol, “The Application of Raman Spectroscopy in the Study of Glass Melting and Fining,” Riv. Staz. Vetro 5, 194 (1982).

Other (2)

A. A. Naqvi, “The Refining of a Soda-Lime-Silica Glass with Antimony,” Thesis, Department of Glass Technology, U. Sheffield (1969).

H. Verweij, “Melting and Fining of Arsenic-Containing Silicate Glass Batches,” Thesis, Technological University of Eindhoven (1980).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Micro-Raman spectroscopy setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample compartment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Focus in air.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Position of focus in air sharply imaged on the pinhole P of the monochromator; (b) position of focus in glass sample after sharply imaging the bubble on P.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Focus in glass sample with bubble.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Raman spectrum in air (125 μm3). (b)Raman spectrum of 02 bubble (200 μm) in glass.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman spectrum of O2 bubble (35 μm) in glass; lines denoted with p are laser plasma lines.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Raman spectrum of CO2 bubble (200 μm) in glass.

Equations (13)

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b = ( 8 λ ) / ( π a 2 ) ;
w 0 = ( 2 λ ) / ( π a ) ;
a = d / f .
tan ( i ) = d / 2 f = A O / O F ,
tan ( r ) = A O / C O ,
C O = F F + O F .
F F = [ 1 tan ( r ) / tan ( i ) ] × C O ,
Δ y = F F = ( 1 1 / n ) × C O .
a = 2 × tan ( r ) ,
a = 2 × tan ( i ) .
a = a × [ tan ( r ) / tan ( i ) ] ,
a = a × 1 / n .
Δ x = ( 1 1 / n ) × C Q .

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