Abstract

Replacement of the central exit aperture of a conventional Fabry-Perot (F.P.) photoelectric interferometer with a multiple annulus exit plate provides a substantial gain in luminosity while maintaining resolving power in the study of extended sources of radiation. The design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of multiple aperture exit plates (MAEPs) which pass 6 interference orders via a central aperture and five concentric annular openings are described. The measured luminosity gains and inferred aperture finesses of MAEPs used with 150- and 100-mm aperture F.P.s are quite close to the design values of 6 and 14.5, respectively.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Frommhold, M. A. Biondi, “Interferometric Study of Dissociative Recombination Radiation in Neon and Argon Afterglows,” Phys. Rev. 185, 244 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Sipler, B. B. Luokkala, M. A. Biondi, “Fabry-Perot Determinations of Midlatitude F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures From 1975 to 1979,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 1025 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Direct Observations of Thermospheric Winds during Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5316 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. R. Treffers, Y-H. Chu, “Galactic Ring Nebulae Associated with Wolf-Rayet Stars. V. The Stellar Wind Blown Bubbles,” Astrophys. J. 254, 569 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d'Emploi des Cellules Photo-electriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interferometres,” J. Rech. C.N.R.S. 6, 91 (1948).
  7. H. Dupoisot, R. Prat, “High Resolvance Interference Spectrometry with a High Factor of Merit in the Visible Spectrum,” Appl. Opt. 18, 85 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures at Equatorial Latitudes: Measured and Predicted Behaviour During Geomagnetically Quiet Conditions,” Planet. Space. Sci. 31, 53 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Okano, J. S. Kim, T. Ichikawa, “Design of a Multiple-Zone Aperture and Application to a Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1622 (1980.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, J. L. Smith, “TESS: a High-Luminosity High-Resolution Twin-Etalon Scanning Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3687 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Hernandez, “Vertical Motions of the Neutral Thermosphere at Midlatitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 555 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1983

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures at Equatorial Latitudes: Measured and Predicted Behaviour During Geomagnetically Quiet Conditions,” Planet. Space. Sci. 31, 53 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

R. R. Treffers, Y-H. Chu, “Galactic Ring Nebulae Associated with Wolf-Rayet Stars. V. The Stellar Wind Blown Bubbles,” Astrophys. J. 254, 569 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, B. B. Luokkala, M. A. Biondi, “Fabry-Perot Determinations of Midlatitude F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures From 1975 to 1979,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 1025 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, “Vertical Motions of the Neutral Thermosphere at Midlatitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1980

1979

1976

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1971

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Direct Observations of Thermospheric Winds during Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5316 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

L. Frommhold, M. A. Biondi, “Interferometric Study of Dissociative Recombination Radiation in Neon and Argon Afterglows,” Phys. Rev. 185, 244 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1948

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d'Emploi des Cellules Photo-electriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interferometres,” J. Rech. C.N.R.S. 6, 91 (1948).

Biondi, M. A.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures at Equatorial Latitudes: Measured and Predicted Behaviour During Geomagnetically Quiet Conditions,” Planet. Space. Sci. 31, 53 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, B. B. Luokkala, M. A. Biondi, “Fabry-Perot Determinations of Midlatitude F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures From 1975 to 1979,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 1025 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. Frommhold, M. A. Biondi, “Interferometric Study of Dissociative Recombination Radiation in Neon and Argon Afterglows,” Phys. Rev. 185, 244 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Y-H.

R. R. Treffers, Y-H. Chu, “Galactic Ring Nebulae Associated with Wolf-Rayet Stars. V. The Stellar Wind Blown Bubbles,” Astrophys. J. 254, 569 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dufour, C.

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d'Emploi des Cellules Photo-electriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interferometres,” J. Rech. C.N.R.S. 6, 91 (1948).

Dupoisot, H.

Frommhold, L.

L. Frommhold, M. A. Biondi, “Interferometric Study of Dissociative Recombination Radiation in Neon and Argon Afterglows,” Phys. Rev. 185, 244 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Direct Observations of Thermospheric Winds during Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5316 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, “Vertical Motions of the Neutral Thermosphere at Midlatitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, J. L. Smith, “TESS: a High-Luminosity High-Resolution Twin-Etalon Scanning Spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3687 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, T.

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d'Emploi des Cellules Photo-electriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interferometres,” J. Rech. C.N.R.S. 6, 91 (1948).

Kim, J. S.

Luokkala, B. B.

D. P. Sipler, B. B. Luokkala, M. A. Biondi, “Fabry-Perot Determinations of Midlatitude F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures From 1975 to 1979,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 1025 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mills, O. A.

Okano, S.

Prat, R.

Roble, R. G.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures at Equatorial Latitudes: Measured and Predicted Behaviour During Geomagnetically Quiet Conditions,” Planet. Space. Sci. 31, 53 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Direct Observations of Thermospheric Winds during Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5316 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D. P.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures at Equatorial Latitudes: Measured and Predicted Behaviour During Geomagnetically Quiet Conditions,” Planet. Space. Sci. 31, 53 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, B. B. Luokkala, M. A. Biondi, “Fabry-Perot Determinations of Midlatitude F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures From 1975 to 1979,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 1025 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Smith, J. L.

Treffers, R. R.

R. R. Treffers, Y-H. Chu, “Galactic Ring Nebulae Associated with Wolf-Rayet Stars. V. The Stellar Wind Blown Bubbles,” Astrophys. J. 254, 569 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

R. R. Treffers, Y-H. Chu, “Galactic Ring Nebulae Associated with Wolf-Rayet Stars. V. The Stellar Wind Blown Bubbles,” Astrophys. J. 254, 569 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

G. Hernandez, “Vertical Motions of the Neutral Thermosphere at Midlatitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, “Direct Measurements of Nighttime Thermospheric Winds and Temperatures 1. Seasonal Variations During Geomagnetic Quiet Periods,” J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, R. G. Roble, “Direct Observations of Thermospheric Winds during Geomagnetic Storms,” J. Geophys. Res. 76, 5316 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Rech. C.N.R.S.

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, “Conditions Optiques d'Emploi des Cellules Photo-electriques dans les Spectrographes et les Interferometres,” J. Rech. C.N.R.S. 6, 91 (1948).

Phys. Rev.

L. Frommhold, M. A. Biondi, “Interferometric Study of Dissociative Recombination Radiation in Neon and Argon Afterglows,” Phys. Rev. 185, 244 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci.

D. P. Sipler, B. B. Luokkala, M. A. Biondi, “Fabry-Perot Determinations of Midlatitude F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures From 1975 to 1979,” Planet. Space Sci. 30, 1025 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space. Sci.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, R. G. Roble, “F-Region Neutral Winds and Temperatures at Equatorial Latitudes: Measured and Predicted Behaviour During Geomagnetically Quiet Conditions,” Planet. Space. Sci. 31, 53 (1983).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simplified diagram of a photoelectric Fabry-Perot interferometer employing a multiaperture exit plate to enhance its luminosity for upper atmosphere nightglow radiation studies. Wavelength scanning is achieved by changing the density of argon gas between the etalon plates (refractive-index tuning).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Machine drawing of the multiaperture exit plate (MAEP) used with a 150-mm aperture Fabry-Perot inteferometer (see Table I for dimensions of plates AF).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view of the partially assembled MAEP of Fig. 2 resting on support bars mounted on a clear Plexiglas base (see text for details).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chart record of the transmitted 632.8-nm laser line intensity as a function of wave number for the MAEP used with a 100-mm aperture F.P. interferometer. At the left, the pattern for the full multiaperture (central aperture and five rings); at the right, that for the central aperture alone. At t = 1-cm spacing, the free spectral range is Δ ν fsr = 0.5 cm 1 .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Dimensions of a Multiaperture Exit Plate for a F.P. with λ = 631.4 nm, t = 1.0000 cm, and f = 122.36 cm (48.172 in.); Refer to Fig. 2

Equations (5)

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n i λ υ = 2 μ t cos θ i ,
D i = 2 f tan θ j ,
cos θ i = 1 ( Δ n i / n o ) ,
θ i ( 2 Δ n i / n o ) 1 / 2 .
Δ n i o = Δ n i i + ( 1 / N ap )

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