Experimental diffraction characteristics of dielectric transmission gratings on planar optical waveguides are compared to theoretical results from the rigorous coupled-wave analysis. The deep-grooved square gratings are shown to have high diffraction efficiency (>90%). In particular, the effects of higher orders of diffraction on the diffraction efficiency, at fixed wavelength, are presented in this paper for both TE and TM polarizations. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is shown to produce excellent general agreement with the measured diffraction characteristics.
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