Abstract

The application of dyed gelatin to real-time non-Fourier image processing methods and polarization holography is described. Examples in contrast reversal of a transparency and subtraction and addition of two signals are presented. In the field of polarization holography interference gratings have been made with two beams having different polarization orientation between them; the polarization state of the diffracted orders has been studied.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Incoherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 28, 295 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver-Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Interferograms Generated by Anisotropic Photographic Recording of Two Partially Coherent Vibrations Perpendicularly Polarized,” Appl. Opt. 19, 624 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Applications of the Weigert Effect to Optical Processing in Partially Coherent Light,” Opt. Eng. 19, 828 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Real-Time Polarizing Image Processing with Dyed Plastic,” Appl. Opt. 24, 773 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. A. Shankoff, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. B. Forshaw, “Thick Holograms a Survey,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 28 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Ferrante, “Second-Harmonic-Generation Spatial Frequency Response,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4180 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Red Sensitivity of Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1189 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dyed Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Sh. D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 41, 525 (1976).
  14. T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photo-Induced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 1: A New High-Efficiency Organic Material with Reversible Photoinduced Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials with and without Intrinsic Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4588 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 3: Some Applications of Polarization Holographic Recording,” Appl. Opt. 24, 785 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Holographic Recording and Reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4313 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. A. Marcroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).
  20. R. J. Collier, L. H. Lin, C. B. Burkhardt, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 10.
  21. A. W. Lohmann, “Reconstruction of Vectorial Wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1667 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  22. O. Bryngahl, “Polarizing Holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 545 (1967).
  23. M. E. Fourney, A. P. Waggoner, K. V. Mate, “Recording Polarization Effects via Holography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 701 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. N. Kurtz, “Holographic Polarization Recording with an Encoded Reference Beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 59 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1965), p. 29.

1985 (3)

1984 (4)

1983 (1)

T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photo-Induced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Applications of the Weigert Effect to Optical Processing in Partially Coherent Light,” Opt. Eng. 19, 828 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Interferograms Generated by Anisotropic Photographic Recording of Two Partially Coherent Vibrations Perpendicularly Polarized,” Appl. Opt. 19, 624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (3)

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Incoherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 28, 295 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver-Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

Sh. D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 41, 525 (1976).

T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (1)

M. R. B. Forshaw, “Thick Holograms a Survey,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 28 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dyed Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. N. Kurtz, “Holographic Polarization Recording with an Encoded Reference Beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 59 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (2)

1967 (1)

1965 (1)

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1965), p. 29.

Bryngahl, O.

Burkhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, L. H. Lin, C. B. Burkhardt, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 10.

Calixto, S.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, L. H. Lin, C. B. Burkhardt, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 10.

Ferrante, R. A.

Forshaw, M. R. B.

M. R. B. Forshaw, “Thick Holograms a Survey,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 28 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fourney, M. E.

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dyed Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Honda, K.

Jonathan, J. M. C.

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Interferograms Generated by Anisotropic Photographic Recording of Two Partially Coherent Vibrations Perpendicularly Polarized,” Appl. Opt. 19, 624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Applications of the Weigert Effect to Optical Processing in Partially Coherent Light,” Opt. Eng. 19, 828 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Incoherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 28, 295 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver-Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kakischavili, Sh. D.

Sh. D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 41, 525 (1976).

Kubota, T.

Kurtz, C. N.

C. N. Kurtz, “Holographic Polarization Recording with an Encoded Reference Beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 59 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lessard, R. A.

Lin, L. H.

R. J. Collier, L. H. Lin, C. B. Burkhardt, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 10.

Lohmann, A. W.

Marcroft, D. A.

D. A. Marcroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).

Mate, K. V.

May, M.

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Interferograms Generated by Anisotropic Photographic Recording of Two Partially Coherent Vibrations Perpendicularly Polarized,” Appl. Opt. 19, 624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Applications of the Weigert Effect to Optical Processing in Partially Coherent Light,” Opt. Eng. 19, 828 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver-Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Incoherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 28, 295 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nikolova, L.

Ose, T.

Roberge, P. C.

Sasaki, M.

Shankoff, T. A.

Shaverdova, V. G.

Sh. D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 41, 525 (1976).

Solano, C.

Stoyanova, K.

Todorov, T.

Tomova, N.

Waggoner, A. P.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1965), p. 29.

Appl. Opt. (11)

T. A. Shankoff, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kubota, T. Ose, M. Sasaki, K. Honda, “Hologram Formation with Red Light in Methylene Blue Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 15, 556 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Interferograms Generated by Anisotropic Photographic Recording of Two Partially Coherent Vibrations Perpendicularly Polarized,” Appl. Opt. 19, 624 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Ferrante, “Second-Harmonic-Generation Spatial Frequency Response,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4180 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 1: A New High-Efficiency Organic Material with Reversible Photoinduced Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4309 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Holographic Recording and Reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4313 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials with and without Intrinsic Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4588 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Real-Time Polarizing Image Processing with Dyed Plastic,” Appl. Opt. 24, 773 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, K. Stoyanova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 3: Some Applications of Polarization Holographic Recording,” Appl. Opt. 24, 785 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, P. C. Roberge, “Red Sensitivity of Dichromated Gelatin Films,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1189 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Lohmann, “Reconstruction of Vectorial Wavefronts,” Appl. Opt. 4, 1667 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. N. Kurtz, “Holographic Polarization Recording with an Encoded Reference Beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 59 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Opt. Commun. (5)

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Incoherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 28, 295 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver-Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photo-Induced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dyed Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Applications of the Weigert Effect to Optical Processing in Partially Coherent Light,” Opt. Eng. 19, 828 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

M. R. B. Forshaw, “Thick Holograms a Survey,” Opt. Laser Technol. 6, 28 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. USSR (1)

Sh. D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 41, 525 (1976).

Other (3)

D. A. Marcroft, “The Production of Dichromated Gelatin Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).

R. J. Collier, L. H. Lin, C. B. Burkhardt, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 10.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, London, 1965), p. 29.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dyed gelatin plate transmission vs wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Irradiated plate transmittance (percent) behavior as a function of wavelength (anometers). Exposure time, 5 min. The reading light was perpendicularly or parallel polarized to the polarization direction of the recording light.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Irradiated plate transmittance (percent) behavior as a function of wavelength (nanometers). Exposure time, 20 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Irradiated plate shows two priviliged directions: X and Y. (a) This plate splits the incident vibration P into a directly transmitted vibration T and a component b (due to the dichroism); R is the result of both T and b. Analyzer A crossed with P absorbs the T component and transmits part of the b component. (b) The different angular displacements between red and blue-green light.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images given by dyed gelatin which had recorded a spatial distribution of light by the contact printing method. (a) The dyed gelatin was between crossed polarizers. (b) The analyzer was slightly rotated from the crossed position.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images given by the dyed gelatin plate between crossed polarizers. Two overlapping spatial distributions of light (rectangles) with different polarizations had been recorded. Depending on the angular orientation of the plate the photographs show (a) reconstruction of one original distribution of light; (b) subtraction of the two signals; (c) addition of the two signals; (d) contrast reversal of one signal while the other remained unaltered.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization states of the resultant vibration generated by two beams perpendicularly polarized and with a phase difference.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Diffracted orders polarization angle (degrees) vs angle (degrees) between the polarizations of the recording beams.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Photograph showing +1,0,−1 orders given by an interference grating made with perpendicular polarized beams. Before the photograph was taken a Polaroid was interposed in the diffracted orders path and rotated to diminish zeroth-order intensity. +1 and −1 orders were polarized perpendicularly to zeroth-order polarization.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffraction efficiency behavior (percent) of gratings, made with two beams parallel polarized, as a function of exposure time. Spatial frequency was 190 lines/mm, two dye concentrations were used; the beam intensity ratio is a parameter.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Diffraction efficiency (percent) as a function of exposure; the spatial frequency is a parameter. The recording beams had parallel polarization between them.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Diffraction efficiency behavior (percent) of gratings made with two beams perpendicularly polarized as a function of exposure time. Spatial frequency: 190 lines/mm. Dye concentration: 0.25 × 10−2 mol/liter. The beam ratio is a parameter.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Diffraction efficiency as a function of exposure. Spatial frequency is a parameter. Recording beams were perpendicularly polarized.

Equations (1)

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I ( b 2 sin 2 ( P D ) a 2 sin 2 D ) 2 ,

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