Abstract

The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique generally assumes that atmospheric optical scattering is the same at the two laser wavelengths used in the DIAL measurement of a gas concentration profile. Errors can arise in this approach when the wavelengths are significantly separated, and there is a range dependence in the aerosol scattering distribution. This paper discusses the errors introduced by large DIAL wavelength separations and spatial inhomogeneity of aerosols in the atmosphere. A Bernoulli solution for determining the relative distribution of aerosol backscattering in the UV region is presented, and scattering ratio boundary values for these solutions are discussed. The results of this approach are used to derive a backscatter correction to the standard DIAL analysis method. It is shown that for the worst cases of severe range dependence in aerosol backscattering, the residual errors in the corrected DIAL O3 measurements were <10 ppbv for DIAL wavelengths at 286 and 300 nm.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. M. Schotland, “Some Observations of the Vertical Profile of Water Vapor by Means of a Ground Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 12–14 Apr. 1966 (U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1966).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, T. J. McIlrath, “Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar Development and Evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3474 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. V. Browell, “Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. V. Browell et al., “NASA Multipurpose Airborne DIAL System and Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution by Active Remote Sensing,” NASA Contract Rep. 132724 (1975).
  7. E. E. Remsberg, L. L. Gordley, “Analysis of Differential Absorption Lidar from the Space Shuttle,” Appl. Opt. 17, 624 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. V. Browell, Ed., “Shuttle Atmospheric Lidar Research Program—Final Report of Atmospheric Lidar Working Group,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).
  9. R. T. Thompson, “Differential Absorption and Scattering Sensitivity Predictions,” NASA Contract. Rep. 2627 (1976).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Hitschfeld, J. Bordan, “Errors Inherent in the Radar Measurement of Rainfall at Attenuating Wavelengths,” J. Meteorol. 11, 58 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distribution by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. V. Browell, S. T. Shipley, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, “Airborne DIAL Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles in the 1980 PEPE/NEROS Field Experiment,” NASA Republ. in preparation (1985).
  14. L. Elterman, “UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (1968).
  15. R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 117.
  16. G. L. Gregory, S. M. Beck, J. J. Mathis, “In Situ Correlative Measurements for the Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar Air Quality Remote Sensors: 1980 PEPE/NEROS Program,” NASA Tech. Memo. 83107 (1981).
  17. G. M. Murphy, Ordinary Differential Equations and Their Solutions (Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), p. 451.
  18. J. D. Klett, “Stable Analytical Inversion Solution for Processing Lidar Returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. U. S. Standard Model Atmosphere (GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  20. E. P. Shettle, AFGL, Bedford, Mass. 01731; private communication.
  21. R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a New Atmospheric Probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, “Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements. III: Optical Model Calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Amospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183 (1976).

1983

1982

E. V. Browell, “Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

1979

1978

1976

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, “Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements. III: Optical Model Calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distribution by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966

R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a New Atmospheric Probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1954

W. Hitschfeld, J. Bordan, “Errors Inherent in the Radar Measurement of Rainfall at Attenuating Wavelengths,” J. Meteorol. 11, 58 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Beck, S. M.

G. L. Gregory, S. M. Beck, J. J. Mathis, “In Situ Correlative Measurements for the Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar Air Quality Remote Sensors: 1980 PEPE/NEROS Program,” NASA Tech. Memo. 83107 (1981).

Bordan, J.

W. Hitschfeld, J. Bordan, “Errors Inherent in the Radar Measurement of Rainfall at Attenuating Wavelengths,” J. Meteorol. 11, 58 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell et al., “NASA Multipurpose Airborne DIAL System and Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles,” Appl. Opt. 22, 522 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, “Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, T. J. McIlrath, “Water Vapor Differential Absorption Lidar Development and Evaluation,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3474 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Browell, S. T. Shipley, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, “Airborne DIAL Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles in the 1980 PEPE/NEROS Field Experiment,” NASA Republ. in preparation (1985).

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, S. T. Shipley, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, “Airborne DIAL Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles in the 1980 PEPE/NEROS Field Experiment,” NASA Republ. in preparation (1985).

Byer, R. L.

Collis, R. T. H.

R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a New Atmospheric Probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 117.

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, “UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (1968).

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Amospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183 (1976).

Fernald, F. G.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distribution by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Garbuny, M.

Gasiorek, L. S.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution by Active Remote Sensing,” NASA Contract Rep. 132724 (1975).

Gordley, L. L.

Gregory, G. L.

G. L. Gregory, S. M. Beck, J. J. Mathis, “In Situ Correlative Measurements for the Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar Air Quality Remote Sensors: 1980 PEPE/NEROS Program,” NASA Tech. Memo. 83107 (1981).

Herman, B. M.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distribution by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hitschfeld, W.

W. Hitschfeld, J. Bordan, “Errors Inherent in the Radar Measurement of Rainfall at Attenuating Wavelengths,” J. Meteorol. 11, 58 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, D. J.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, “Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements. III: Optical Model Calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

E. V. Browell, S. T. Shipley, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, “Airborne DIAL Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles in the 1980 PEPE/NEROS Field Experiment,” NASA Republ. in preparation (1985).

Klett, J. D.

Liston, E. M.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution by Active Remote Sensing,” NASA Contract Rep. 132724 (1975).

Mathis, J. J.

G. L. Gregory, S. M. Beck, J. J. Mathis, “In Situ Correlative Measurements for the Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar Air Quality Remote Sensors: 1980 PEPE/NEROS Program,” NASA Tech. Memo. 83107 (1981).

McIlrath, T. J.

Murphy, G. M.

G. M. Murphy, Ordinary Differential Equations and Their Solutions (Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), p. 451.

Pinnick, R. G.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, “Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements. III: Optical Model Calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, E. K.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution by Active Remote Sensing,” NASA Contract Rep. 132724 (1975).

Reagan, J. A.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distribution by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Remsberg, E. E.

Rosen, J. M.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, “Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements. III: Optical Model Calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 117.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Some Observations of the Vertical Profile of Water Vapor by Means of a Ground Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 12–14 Apr. 1966 (U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1966).

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, AFGL, Bedford, Mass. 01731; private communication.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Amospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183 (1976).

Shipley, S. T.

E. V. Browell, S. T. Shipley, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, “Airborne DIAL Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles in the 1980 PEPE/NEROS Field Experiment,” NASA Republ. in preparation (1985).

Thompson, R. T.

R. T. Thompson, “Differential Absorption and Scattering Sensitivity Predictions,” NASA Contract. Rep. 2627 (1976).

Wilkerson, T. D.

Wright, M. L.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution by Active Remote Sensing,” NASA Contract Rep. 132724 (1975).

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Meteorol.

F. G. Fernald, B. M. Herman, J. A. Reagan, “Determination of Aerosol Height Distribution by Lidar,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 11, 482 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, “Errors in the Lidar Measurement of Atmospheric Gases by Differential Absorption,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

R. G. Pinnick, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, “Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements. III: Optical Model Calculations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 304 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol.

W. Hitschfeld, J. Bordan, “Errors Inherent in the Radar Measurement of Rainfall at Attenuating Wavelengths,” J. Meteorol. 11, 58 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

E. V. Browell, “Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Gases,” Opt. Eng. 21, 128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

R. T. H. Collis, “Lidar: a New Atmospheric Probe,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 92, 220 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. M. Schotland, “Some Observations of the Vertical Profile of Water Vapor by Means of a Ground Based Optical Radar,” in Proceedings, Fourth Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 12–14 Apr. 1966 (U. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1966).

U. S. Standard Model Atmosphere (GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

E. P. Shettle, AFGL, Bedford, Mass. 01731; private communication.

E. V. Browell, S. T. Shipley, C. F. Butler, S. Ismail, “Airborne DIAL Measurements of Ozone and Aerosol Profiles in the 1980 PEPE/NEROS Field Experiment,” NASA Republ. in preparation (1985).

L. Elterman, “UV, Visible, and IR Attenuation for Altitudes to 50 km, 1968,” AFCRL-68-0153 (1968).

R. T. H. Collis, P. B. Russell, in Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere, E. D. Hinkley, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1976), p. 117.

G. L. Gregory, S. M. Beck, J. J. Mathis, “In Situ Correlative Measurements for the Ultraviolet Differential Absorption Lidar and the High Spectral Resolution Lidar Air Quality Remote Sensors: 1980 PEPE/NEROS Program,” NASA Tech. Memo. 83107 (1981).

G. M. Murphy, Ordinary Differential Equations and Their Solutions (Van Nostrand, New York, 1960), p. 451.

M. L. Wright, E. K. Proctor, L. S. Gasiorek, E. M. Liston, “A Preliminary Study of Air Pollution by Active Remote Sensing,” NASA Contract Rep. 132724 (1975).

E. V. Browell, Ed., “Shuttle Atmospheric Lidar Research Program—Final Report of Atmospheric Lidar Working Group,” NASA Spec. Publ. 433 (1979).

R. T. Thompson, “Differential Absorption and Scattering Sensitivity Predictions,” NASA Contract. Rep. 2627 (1976).

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models of the Amospheric Aerosols and Their Optical Properties,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 183 (1976).

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