Abstract

Fluorescent additives which allow the determination of droplet temperatures in hydrocarbon fuel sprays have been developed. These systems, which exploit the chemistry of organic exciplexes, should make possible the determination of droplet temperatures within 1°C. Two specific systems are described: 3,10-dicyanophenanthrene/diethylaniline over the 20–135°C range, and naphthalene/tetramethyl-p-phenylene diamine over the 140–265°C range. These additives should allow 2-D real-time nonintrusive visualization of the droplet temperatures in an evolving fuel spray.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Glassman, Combustion (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 179.
  2. W. A. Sirignano, “Fuel Droplet Vaporization and Spray Combustion Theory,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 9, 291 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. K. Law, “Heat and Mass Transfer in Combustion: Fundamental Concepts and Analytical Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 10, 295 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. A. Melton, “Spectrally Separated Emissions for Diesel Fuel Droplets and Vapor,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2224 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization for Fuel Sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. A. Caldwell, D. Creed, “Exciplex Intermediates in (2+2) Photocycloadditions,” Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 45 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. H. Knibbe, D. Rehm, A. Weller, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 839 (1969).
  9. N. I. Ghali, “Studies on Substituted 9-Cyanophenanthrene Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Quenching and Photocycloaddition with Olefins,” M.S. Thesis, U. Texas at Dallas (Aug.1974).
  10. I. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1971).
  11. W. H. Melhuish, “Absolute Spectrofluorometry,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 378, 137 (May1973).
  12. W. H. Melhuish, “Modified Technique for Determining the Wavelength-Sensitivity Curve of a Spectrofluorimeter,” Appl. Opt. 14, 26 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  13. Eppley Lab. Inc., Newport, R.I., lamp ES-7706.
  14. P. A. Martic, R. C. Daly, J. L. R. Williams, S. Farid, “Effect of Polymeric Matrices and Temperatures on Exciplex Emissions,” Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.) 15, 295 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Zahlenwerte und Functionen as Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, Sixth Series, Transportphanomene I/5 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969), p. 634.
  16. M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, Spatially Resolved Monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/02 Flame Using a Diode Array Detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1985

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization for Fuel Sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

W. A. Sirignano, “Fuel Droplet Vaporization and Spray Combustion Theory,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 9, 291 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Law, “Heat and Mass Transfer in Combustion: Fundamental Concepts and Analytical Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 10, 295 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1982

M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, Spatially Resolved Monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/02 Flame Using a Diode Array Detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

R. A. Caldwell, D. Creed, “Exciplex Intermediates in (2+2) Photocycloadditions,” Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1977

P. A. Martic, R. C. Daly, J. L. R. Williams, S. Farid, “Effect of Polymeric Matrices and Temperatures on Exciplex Emissions,” Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.) 15, 295 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975

1973

W. H. Melhuish, “Absolute Spectrofluorometry,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 378, 137 (May1973).

1969

V. H. Knibbe, D. Rehm, A. Weller, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 839 (1969).

Alden, M.

M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, Spatially Resolved Monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/02 Flame Using a Diode Array Detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Berlman, I.

I. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1971).

Bornstein, R.

H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Zahlenwerte und Functionen as Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, Sixth Series, Transportphanomene I/5 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969), p. 634.

Caldwell, R. A.

R. A. Caldwell, D. Creed, “Exciplex Intermediates in (2+2) Photocycloadditions,” Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Creed, D.

R. A. Caldwell, D. Creed, “Exciplex Intermediates in (2+2) Photocycloadditions,” Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Daly, R. C.

P. A. Martic, R. C. Daly, J. L. R. Williams, S. Farid, “Effect of Polymeric Matrices and Temperatures on Exciplex Emissions,” Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.) 15, 295 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Edner, H.

M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, Spatially Resolved Monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/02 Flame Using a Diode Array Detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Farid, S.

P. A. Martic, R. C. Daly, J. L. R. Williams, S. Farid, “Effect of Polymeric Matrices and Temperatures on Exciplex Emissions,” Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.) 15, 295 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ghali, N. I.

N. I. Ghali, “Studies on Substituted 9-Cyanophenanthrene Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Quenching and Photocycloaddition with Olefins,” M.S. Thesis, U. Texas at Dallas (Aug.1974).

Glassman, I.

I. Glassman, Combustion (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 179.

Knibbe, V. H.

V. H. Knibbe, D. Rehm, A. Weller, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 839 (1969).

Landolt, H. H.

H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Zahlenwerte und Functionen as Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, Sixth Series, Transportphanomene I/5 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969), p. 634.

Law, C. K.

C. K. Law, “Heat and Mass Transfer in Combustion: Fundamental Concepts and Analytical Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 10, 295 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Martic, P. A.

P. A. Martic, R. C. Daly, J. L. R. Williams, S. Farid, “Effect of Polymeric Matrices and Temperatures on Exciplex Emissions,” Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.) 15, 295 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Melhuish, W. H.

W. H. Melhuish, “Modified Technique for Determining the Wavelength-Sensitivity Curve of a Spectrofluorimeter,” Appl. Opt. 14, 26 (1975).
[PubMed]

W. H. Melhuish, “Absolute Spectrofluorometry,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 378, 137 (May1973).

Melton, L. A.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization for Fuel Sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Melton, “Spectrally Separated Emissions for Diesel Fuel Droplets and Vapor,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2224 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1985).
[CrossRef]

Rehm, D.

V. H. Knibbe, D. Rehm, A. Weller, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 839 (1969).

Sirignano, W. A.

W. A. Sirignano, “Fuel Droplet Vaporization and Spray Combustion Theory,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 9, 291 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, Spatially Resolved Monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/02 Flame Using a Diode Array Detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Verdieck, J. F.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization for Fuel Sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1985).
[CrossRef]

Weller, A.

V. H. Knibbe, D. Rehm, A. Weller, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 839 (1969).

Williams, J. L. R.

P. A. Martic, R. C. Daly, J. L. R. Williams, S. Farid, “Effect of Polymeric Matrices and Temperatures on Exciplex Emissions,” Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.) 15, 295 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res.

R. A. Caldwell, D. Creed, “Exciplex Intermediates in (2+2) Photocycloadditions,” Acc. Chem. Res. 13, 45 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

M. Alden, H. Edner, S. Svanberg, “Simultaneous, Spatially Resolved Monitoring of C2 and OH in a C2H2/02 Flame Using a Diode Array Detector,” Appl. Phys. B 29, 93 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem.

V. H. Knibbe, D. Rehm, A. Weller, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 73, 839 (1969).

Combust. Sci. Technol.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization for Fuel Sprays,” Combust. Sci. Technol. 42, 217 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.

W. H. Melhuish, “Absolute Spectrofluorometry,” Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. 378, 137 (May1973).

Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.)

P. A. Martic, R. C. Daly, J. L. R. Williams, S. Farid, “Effect of Polymeric Matrices and Temperatures on Exciplex Emissions,” Polymer Sci. (Polymer Lett.) 15, 295 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci.

W. A. Sirignano, “Fuel Droplet Vaporization and Spray Combustion Theory,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 9, 291 (1984).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Law, “Heat and Mass Transfer in Combustion: Fundamental Concepts and Analytical Techniques,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 10, 295 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other

Eppley Lab. Inc., Newport, R.I., lamp ES-7706.

H. H. Landolt, R. Bornstein, Zahlenwerte und Functionen as Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, Sixth Series, Transportphanomene I/5 (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1969), p. 634.

I. Glassman, Combustion (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 179.

L. A. Melton, J. F. Verdieck, “Vapor/Liquid Visualization in Fuel Sprays,” in Proceedings, Twentieth Symposium (International) on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1985).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Ghali, “Studies on Substituted 9-Cyanophenanthrene Spectroscopy, Fluorescence Quenching and Photocycloaddition with Olefins,” M.S. Thesis, U. Texas at Dallas (Aug.1974).

I. Berlman, Handbook of Fluorescence Spectra of Aromatic Molecules (Academic, New York, 1971).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fluorescence spectra of DCNP/DEA solutions as a function of temperature.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Logarithm of the ratio of the DCNP/DEA exciplex fluorescence intensity at 530 nm to the DCNP monomer fluorescence intensity at 390 nm as a function of temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fluorescence spectra of N/TMPD solutions as a function of temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Logarithm of the ratio of the N/TMPD exciplex fluorescence intensity at 500 nm to the TMPD monomer fluorescence intensity at 400 nm as a function of temperature.

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