Abstract

A number of samples of optical thin film materials were flown on Shuttle flight STS-8 as part of an experiment to evaluate their interaction with residual atomic oxygen in low earth orbit. Osmium was selected because of its usefulness as a reflective optical coating for far-UV instruments and for confirmation of results from previous Shuttle flights in which such coatings disappeared. Reflectance data and photographic evidence are presented to support the hypothesis that the osmium disappearance is due to reaction with oxygen to form a volatile oxide. Platinum and iridium, which were included for comparison, fared much better.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “New Developments in Vacuum-Ultraviolet Reflecting Coatings for Space Astronomy,” in Space Optics, Proceedings, Ninth International Congress of the International Commission for Optics. B. J. Thompson, R. R. Shannon, Eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), pp. 525–553.
  2. J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of Atomic Oxygen on Paint and Optical Coatings,” presented at the AIAA Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 Oct.–2 Nov. 1983.
  3. “Platinum Group Metals,” National Research Council, Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Report PB-276828 (Sept.1977), p. 62.
  4. L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1956), p. 99.
  5. W. R. Hunter, “On the Cause of Errors in Reflectance vs Angle of Incidence Measurements and the Design of Reflectometers to Eliminate the Errors,” Appl. Opt. 6, 2140 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. B. Gillette, J. R. Hollahan, G. L. Carlson, “Restoration of Optical Properties of Surfaces by Radiofrequency-Excited Oxygen,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 534 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “Laboratory Experiments to Study Surface Contamination and Degradation of Optical Coatings and Materials in Simulated Space Environments,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2101 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. B. Heaney, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, “Auger Spectroscopic Examination of MgF2-Coated Al Mirrors Before and After UV Irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1886 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

1970 (2)

R. B. Gillette, J. R. Hollahan, G. L. Carlson, “Restoration of Optical Properties of Surfaces by Radiofrequency-Excited Oxygen,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 534 (1970).
[CrossRef]

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “Laboratory Experiments to Study Surface Contamination and Degradation of Optical Coatings and Materials in Simulated Space Environments,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2101 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

Carlson, G. L.

R. B. Gillette, J. R. Hollahan, G. L. Carlson, “Restoration of Optical Properties of Surfaces by Radiofrequency-Excited Oxygen,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 534 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, R. B.

R. B. Gillette, J. R. Hollahan, G. L. Carlson, “Restoration of Optical Properties of Surfaces by Radiofrequency-Excited Oxygen,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 534 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Gull, T. R.

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of Atomic Oxygen on Paint and Optical Coatings,” presented at the AIAA Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 Oct.–2 Nov. 1983.

Hass, G.

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “Laboratory Experiments to Study Surface Contamination and Degradation of Optical Coatings and Materials in Simulated Space Environments,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2101 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “New Developments in Vacuum-Ultraviolet Reflecting Coatings for Space Astronomy,” in Space Optics, Proceedings, Ninth International Congress of the International Commission for Optics. B. J. Thompson, R. R. Shannon, Eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), pp. 525–553.

Heaney, J. B.

Herzig, H.

J. B. Heaney, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, “Auger Spectroscopic Examination of MgF2-Coated Al Mirrors Before and After UV Irradiation,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1886 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of Atomic Oxygen on Paint and Optical Coatings,” presented at the AIAA Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 Oct.–2 Nov. 1983.

Hollahan, J. R.

R. B. Gillette, J. R. Hollahan, G. L. Carlson, “Restoration of Optical Properties of Surfaces by Radiofrequency-Excited Oxygen,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 534 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Holland, L.

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1956), p. 99.

Hunter, W. R.

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “Laboratory Experiments to Study Surface Contamination and Degradation of Optical Coatings and Materials in Simulated Space Environments,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2101 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Hunter, “On the Cause of Errors in Reflectance vs Angle of Incidence Measurements and the Design of Reflectometers to Eliminate the Errors,” Appl. Opt. 6, 2140 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “New Developments in Vacuum-Ultraviolet Reflecting Coatings for Space Astronomy,” in Space Optics, Proceedings, Ninth International Congress of the International Commission for Optics. B. J. Thompson, R. R. Shannon, Eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), pp. 525–553.

Osantowski, J. F.

Park, J. J.

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of Atomic Oxygen on Paint and Optical Coatings,” presented at the AIAA Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 Oct.–2 Nov. 1983.

Toft, A. R.

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of Atomic Oxygen on Paint and Optical Coatings,” presented at the AIAA Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 Oct.–2 Nov. 1983.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. B. Gillette, J. R. Hollahan, G. L. Carlson, “Restoration of Optical Properties of Surfaces by Radiofrequency-Excited Oxygen,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 7, 534 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

G. Hass, W. R. Hunter, “New Developments in Vacuum-Ultraviolet Reflecting Coatings for Space Astronomy,” in Space Optics, Proceedings, Ninth International Congress of the International Commission for Optics. B. J. Thompson, R. R. Shannon, Eds. (National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C., 1974), pp. 525–553.

J. J. Park, T. R. Gull, H. Herzig, A. R. Toft, “Effects of Atomic Oxygen on Paint and Optical Coatings,” presented at the AIAA Shuttle Environment and Operations Meeting, Washington, D.C., 31 Oct.–2 Nov. 1983.

“Platinum Group Metals,” National Research Council, Washington, D.C., U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, Report PB-276828 (Sept.1977), p. 62.

L. Holland, Vacuum Deposition of Thin Films (Wiley, New York, 1956), p. 99.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Effect of low earth orbit environment on the reflectance spectrum of exposed and masked portions of a 200-Å thick osmium film with chromium undercoat.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Preflight and postflight reflectance spectra of an osmium nonflight control sample stored in a laboratory environment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph at 2.5× magnification of a retrieved osmium flight sample in its aluminum container demonstrating the transparency of the exposed central portion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of low earth orbit environment on the reflectance spectrum of exposed and masked portions of a chromium film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of low earth orbit environment on the reflectance spectrum of exposed and masked portions of a platinum film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Preflight and postflight reflectance spectra of a platinum nonflight control sample stored in a laboratory environment.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of low earth orbit environment on the reflectance spectrum of exposed and masked portions of an iridium film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph at 2.5× magnification of a retrieved iridium flight sample with no chromium undercoat showing the crazed condition of the coating in the exposed central area.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of the relative reflectance changes of the three osmium samples in the voltage retardation experiment as a function of the applied grid potential.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of the postflight reflectance spectra of an osmium sample with a chromium undercoat and a chromium sample illustrating their similarity.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photomicrograph at 75× magnification of a retrieved iridium sample from the voltage retardation experiment illustrating the structure of the crazed film.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Effect of low earth orbit environment on the reflectance spectrum of an iridium sample with chromium undercoat, which was mounted at the base of a simulated telescope tube oriented at 60° to the velocity vector.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Preflight and postflight reflectance spectra of an iridium nonflight control sample stored in a laboratory environment.

Metrics