Abstract

A process is described whereby 2-D arrays of small diameter spherical lenses are produced in a homogeneous photosensitive glass by a photothermal technique. The mechanism of the lens formation is explained on the basis of the density change of the photonucleated microcrystalline phase developed relative to the unexposed glass. The lens formation is related to such variables as optical exposure, thermal schedule, glass thickness, and lens diameter. Optical characterization of the lenses produced by this technique was carried out by interferometric and MTF measurements. One-to-one conjugate erect imaging lens arrays were fabricated and tested.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Kitano et al., “Image Transmitter Formed of a Plurality of Graded Index Fibers in Bundled Configuration,” U.S. Patent3,658,407 (1972).
  2. K. Matsushita, K. Ideda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 31, 23 (1972).
  3. R. W. Moorhusen et al., “Lens Strip Optical Scanning System,” U.S. Patent3,544,190 (1970).
  4. R. H. Anderson, “Close-Up Imaging of Documents and Displays with Lens Arrays,” Appl. Opt. 18, 477 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Mochizuki et al., “Projecting Device,” U.S. Patent4,350,431 (1982).
  6. T. P. Seward, “Coloration and Optical Anisotropy in Silver Containing Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 499 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. W. Nicholson, E. W. Vozenelik, “Transmitted Wave Front Analysis of Diffraction Limited Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1828 (1982).
  8. W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

1982 (1)

B. W. Nicholson, E. W. Vozenelik, “Transmitted Wave Front Analysis of Diffraction Limited Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1828 (1982).

1980 (1)

T. P. Seward, “Coloration and Optical Anisotropy in Silver Containing Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1972 (1)

K. Matsushita, K. Ideda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 31, 23 (1972).

Anderson, R. H.

Ideda, K.

K. Matsushita, K. Ideda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 31, 23 (1972).

Kitano, I.

I. Kitano et al., “Image Transmitter Formed of a Plurality of Graded Index Fibers in Bundled Configuration,” U.S. Patent3,658,407 (1972).

Matsushita, K.

K. Matsushita, K. Ideda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 31, 23 (1972).

Mochizuki, M.

M. Mochizuki et al., “Projecting Device,” U.S. Patent4,350,431 (1982).

Moorhusen, R. W.

R. W. Moorhusen et al., “Lens Strip Optical Scanning System,” U.S. Patent3,544,190 (1970).

Nicholson, B. W.

B. W. Nicholson, E. W. Vozenelik, “Transmitted Wave Front Analysis of Diffraction Limited Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1828 (1982).

Seward, T. P.

T. P. Seward, “Coloration and Optical Anisotropy in Silver Containing Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. J.

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

Vozenelik, E. W.

B. W. Nicholson, E. W. Vozenelik, “Transmitted Wave Front Analysis of Diffraction Limited Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1828 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

T. P. Seward, “Coloration and Optical Anisotropy in Silver Containing Glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 40, 499 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

B. W. Nicholson, E. W. Vozenelik, “Transmitted Wave Front Analysis of Diffraction Limited Optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1828 (1982).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

K. Matsushita, K. Ideda, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 31, 23 (1972).

Other (4)

R. W. Moorhusen et al., “Lens Strip Optical Scanning System,” U.S. Patent3,544,190 (1970).

M. Mochizuki et al., “Projecting Device,” U.S. Patent4,350,431 (1982).

W. J. Smith, Modern Optical Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

I. Kitano et al., “Image Transmitter Formed of a Plurality of Graded Index Fibers in Bundled Configuration,” U.S. Patent3,658,407 (1972).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Electron microscope photograph of crystals formed by UV exposure and subsequent thermal treatment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Idealized schematic representation of force developed by the densified phase produced by exposure and thermal treatment; inset, photomask used for exposure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron photomicrograph showing spherical protrusion in perspective. Lens: 400 μm in diameter; maximum height, ~20 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical micrograph showing lenses surrounded by an optically opaque region; photomask used as Fig. 2 inset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Sag as a function of relative exposure level for thermal schedule: 3°/min from 480 to 600°C; 40 min at 600°C; glass thickness, 3 mm; 310-μm lenses. (b) Sag as a function of glass thickness for fixed exposure and thermal schedule as in (a) (○); sag as a function of lens diameter, fixed thickness, exposure level, and thermal schedule (•).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical thermal schedule used to develop crystal phase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Representative surface trace over developed lens using a Dektak IIA surface profiler.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical micrograph of images formed by an array of 400-μm diam lenses of 6-mm thick glass. The test target was a standard Air Force resolution pattern.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Definition of terms used in Eq. (3).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematic representation of the technique used to measure the contrast vs spatial frequency. Test target; Ronchi-type pattern at various values of line pairs per millimeter.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simulated ray trace drawing showing a lens array in an erect 1:1 conjugate imaging condition (meridional rays shown).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured contrast vs spatial frequency as determined by the technique described in Fig. 12 for 310–350-μm arrays, 6 mm thick, with a total 1:1 distance of A, 19 mm; B, 24 mm; C, 30 mm; and D, 46 mm.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Simulated ray trace drawing of lens array with field lenses in an erect 1:1 conjugate imaging condition (meridional rays shown).

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Measured contrast vs spatial frequency for lens arrays with field lenses (stacked arrays) of 310–350 μm, 8 mm thick with total conjugate distance of A, 26 mm; B, 34 mm; C, 38 mm.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Photocopy of test pattern obtained with a Canon PC-20 copier using a 310–300-μm array total conjugate distance of 52 mm.

Tables (1)

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Table I Glass Composition Range wt. %

Equations (6)

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δ T = 2 3 ( 1 ρ ρ 0 ) ,
δ = R c { 1 D / 2 R c ) 2 ] 1 / 2 } D 2 / ( 4 R c ) .
( n 1 ) R 1 = 1 S 0 + n x 1 ( n 1 ) R 2 = 1 S i + n T x 1 ,
t = T R c ( n 1 ) T 2 n R c ,
I max I min I max + I min ,
R field = ( n 1 ) T 2 n .

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