Abstract

The characteristics and theory of operation of a new scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope are described, and a number of results are presented. High-contrast micrographs of a polished stainless steel sample are included, showing clearly the grain boundaries as well as some fine structure within the grains. Micrographs are also presented of natural diamonds both in polished and unpolished forms. In the former many polishing lines are visible, and in the latter one can clearly see a large number of stacking faults. Results on the study of monolayers of Langmuir-Blodgett films are also presented. The micrographs clearly show the boundaries as well as nonuniformities within the films. The ability of our system to image objects showing refractive-index variation is demonstrated by producing micrographs of an exposed but undeveloped photoresist film and a partially doped Si sample. In each case a qualitative comparison is made with the differential interference (Nomarski) micrograph of the same field of view.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différential à ondes polariseés,” J. Phys. Radium 16, 95 (1955).
  2. H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. L. Whitman, A. Korpel, “Probing of Acoustic Surface Perturbations by Coherent Light,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1567 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).
  5. G. E. Sommargren, B. J. Thompson, “Linear Phase Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2130 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. L. J. Laub, “AC Differential Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1977).
  7. K. B. Blodgett, I. Langmuir, “Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties,” Phys. Rev. 51, 964 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. W. Pitt, L. M. Walpita, “Optical Waveguiding in Langmuir Films,” Electron. Lett. 12, 18 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1982

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

L. J. Laub, “AC Differential Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1977).

1976

C. W. Pitt, L. M. Walpita, “Optical Waveguiding in Langmuir Films,” Electron. Lett. 12, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. E. Sommargren, B. J. Thompson, “Linear Phase Microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 12, 2130 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Blodgett, I. Langmuir, “Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties,” Phys. Rev. 51, 964 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).

1969

1955

G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différential à ondes polariseés,” J. Phys. Radium 16, 95 (1955).

Ameri, S.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ash, E. A.

R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).

Blodgett, K. B.

K. B. Blodgett, I. Langmuir, “Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties,” Phys. Rev. 51, 964 (1973).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).

Humpheryes, R. F.

R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Korpel, A.

Langmuir, I.

K. B. Blodgett, I. Langmuir, “Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties,” Phys. Rev. 51, 964 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Laub, L. J.

L. J. Laub, “AC Differential Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1977).

Mason, I.

R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).

Modine, F. A.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différential à ondes polariseés,” J. Phys. Radium 16, 95 (1955).

Pitt, C. W.

C. W. Pitt, L. M. Walpita, “Optical Waveguiding in Langmuir Films,” Electron. Lett. 12, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

See, C. W.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

Thompson, B. J.

Walpita, L. M.

C. W. Pitt, L. M. Walpita, “Optical Waveguiding in Langmuir Films,” Electron. Lett. 12, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

White, C. W.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, R. L.

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. F.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. T.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

C. W. Pitt, L. M. Walpita, “Optical Waveguiding in Langmuir Films,” Electron. Lett. 12, 18 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Wickramasinghe, S. Ameri, C. W. See, “Differential Phase Contrast Optical Microscope with 1-Å Depth Resolution,” Electron. Lett. 18, 22 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

L. J. Laub, “AC Differential Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 737 (1977).

J. Phys. Radium

G. Nomarski, “Microinterféromètre différential à ondes polariseés,” J. Phys. Radium 16, 95 (1955).

Phys. Rev.

K. B. Blodgett, I. Langmuir, “Built-up Films of Barium Stearate and their Optical Properties,” Phys. Rev. 51, 964 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. E. Jellison, F. A. Modine, C. W. White, R. F. Wood, R. T. Young, “Optical Properties of Heavily Doped Silicon Between 1.5 and 4.1 eV,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEE

R. M. De La Rue, R. F. Humpheryes, I. Mason, E. A. Ash, “Acoustic-Surface-Wave Amplitude and Phase Measurements using Laser Probes,” Proc. IEE 119, 117 (1972).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two main contrast mechanisms: (a) a topographic step giving rise to a phase shift 2kΔh, and (b) refractive-index change causing a phase shift 2hΔk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micrographs of a polished stainless steel sample: Fig. 3a shows grain boundaries of steel obtained with the scanning differential phase contrast optical microscope, and Fig. 3b is the same field at a lower magnification; Fig. 3c is the Nomarski counterpart of Fig. 3b.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Micrographs of a natural diamond. Figure 4a is the picture of a certain area obtained with our microscope. Figure 4b shows the same field as in Fig. 4a at a higher magnification. Figure 4c shows the Nomarski picture of the same field as in Fig. 4b.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Micrographs of a polished surface of a natural diamond. Figures a and b were obtained with our microscope. (c) was taken with the differential interference microscope (Nomarski) of the same field of view.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Partially exposed (but undeveloped) photoresist: Fig. 6a is the scanning differential phase-contrast micrograph, and Fig. 6b shows the Nomarski equivalent of Fig. (6a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic structure of the Langmuir-Blodgett films under examination.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Micrographs of a Langmuir-Blodgett film having the structure shown in Fig. 7. Figures 8a and 8b were taken with the scanning differential phase-contrast optical microscope.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Nomarski counterpart of Figs. 8(a) and 8(b). Notice the considerable reduction in contrast.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Micrograph of another Langmuir-Blodgett film with same structure as in Fig. 7 taken with our microscope.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Micrographs of a partially doped Si sample: Figs. (11a) and (11b) were taken with our microscope, and Fig. (11c) was obtained with Nomarski. The contrast in Fig. (11b) was electronically enhanced.

Equations (5)

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S / N = I 0 2 R / 2 ( 4 K T Δ f + 2 e I 0 Δ f R ) F ,
S / N = η P ( 4 ћ ω 0 Δ f ) F .
B sin ( 2 ω b t + Δ ϕ 2 sin ω s t ) .
B Δ ϕ 4 { sin ( 2 ω b + ω s ) t sin ( 2 ω b ω s ) t } .
Δ ϕ min = 64 ћ ω 0 Δ f F η P .

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