Abstract

A family of differentially connected, multimode fiber reflectometers is described, which detects absolute position of a specularly or diffusely reflecting linear or point target. Low noise-equivalent displacement (0.026 nm/√Hz) and bipolar output make this sensor type ideal for use with feedback controlled mechanical stages with submicron precision. Several algorithms for estimating the location of the target point from reflected intensities are investigated and compared through high-resolution error surface plotting.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Snitzer, “Minitutorial: Fiber-Optic Sensors,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper TUD1.
  2. M. Shoham, Y. Fainman, E. Lenz, “An Optical Sensor for Real-Time Positioning, Tracking, and Teaching of Industrial Robots,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum. IECI-31, 159 (1984).
  3. M. Johnson, N-M. Jokerst, “Self-Detecting Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 869 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Johnson, “Differential, Reflective Fiber Displacement Sensor with Misalignment Compensation,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper THGG1.

1984 (2)

M. Shoham, Y. Fainman, E. Lenz, “An Optical Sensor for Real-Time Positioning, Tracking, and Teaching of Industrial Robots,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum. IECI-31, 159 (1984).

M. Johnson, N-M. Jokerst, “Self-Detecting Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 869 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. Shoham, Y. Fainman, E. Lenz, “An Optical Sensor for Real-Time Positioning, Tracking, and Teaching of Industrial Robots,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum. IECI-31, 159 (1984).

Johnson, M.

M. Johnson, N-M. Jokerst, “Self-Detecting Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 869 (1984).
[CrossRef]

M. Johnson, “Differential, Reflective Fiber Displacement Sensor with Misalignment Compensation,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper THGG1.

Jokerst, N-M.

M. Johnson, N-M. Jokerst, “Self-Detecting Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 869 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, E.

M. Shoham, Y. Fainman, E. Lenz, “An Optical Sensor for Real-Time Positioning, Tracking, and Teaching of Industrial Robots,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum. IECI-31, 159 (1984).

Shoham, M.

M. Shoham, Y. Fainman, E. Lenz, “An Optical Sensor for Real-Time Positioning, Tracking, and Teaching of Industrial Robots,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum. IECI-31, 159 (1984).

Snitzer, E.

E. Snitzer, “Minitutorial: Fiber-Optic Sensors,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper TUD1.

IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum. (1)

M. Shoham, Y. Fainman, E. Lenz, “An Optical Sensor for Real-Time Positioning, Tracking, and Teaching of Industrial Robots,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Control Instrum. IECI-31, 159 (1984).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Johnson, N-M. Jokerst, “Self-Detecting Light Emitting Diode Optical Sensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 869 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

M. Johnson, “Differential, Reflective Fiber Displacement Sensor with Misalignment Compensation,” in Technical Digest, Third International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1985), paper THGG1.

E. Snitzer, “Minitutorial: Fiber-Optic Sensors,” in Technical Digest, Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1984), paper TUD1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

One-dimensional differential fiber reflectometer. A mask with linear reflector recouples light from a central to two neighboring optical fibers. Scanning the mask transversely along the X axis produces the S-shaped responses (AB), which are different for specular aluminum and diffusely reflecting copper lines.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential output AB plotted as a function of transverse displacement and also of the reflecting linewidth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential output plotted as a function of transverse displacement and also of the axial position of the sensor. From the peak response at 440-μm separation, the response degrades rapidly moving toward the mask and more slowly at larger separations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two-dimensional fiber reflectometer. A packed array of seven fibers illuminates and receives reflected light from a circular reflecting dot.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raster of 30 × 30 measurements of four of the six fiber intensities. The intensities have been mapped to an estimated ξ,ζ position using the linear algorithm shown in the insert, where the radial distance to the foot of the perpendicular is the differential signal of the corresponding fiber pair.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Mapping of the previous figure with the three individual position estimates averaged.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Error surface of the data of Fig. 6. Vector distances of true reflector position from estimated position are plotted vertically as a function of the X,Y position.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Error surface for the 2-D sensor, mapped using the general quadratic algorithm described. The central low-error region has been extended to ~±35 μm.

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