Abstract

A new method for measuring the cutoff wavelength of HE21, TE01, and TM01 modes in single-mode fibers is reported. The method is based on the difference in polarization between the HE11 and second-order modes launched in the offset condition. A single-polarization fiber several meters in length is used as a launching fiber to eliminate cladding mode disturbance and realize linear polarization launching into a test fiber. Good agreement between theoretical and measured cutoff wavelengths for fibers with various refractive-index profiles confirms the high accuracy of the method. A resolution of ±0.005 μm is attained with the method.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Tateda, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Design Consideration on Single-Mode Fiber Parameters,” Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) J56-B, 324 (1982).
  2. L. Jeunhomme, “Single-Mode Fiber Design for Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 573 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, “Cutoff Frequency in Radially Inhomogeneous Single-Mode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 13, 139 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, R. B. Dyott, “Determination of Core Diameter and Refractive-Index Difference of Single-Mode Fibers by Observation of the Far-Field Pattern,” IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. 1, 13 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Katsuyama, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, M. Nakahara, “A New Method for Measuring the V-Value of a Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 12, 669 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. A. Millar, “Direct Method of Determining Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 458 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Murakami, A. Kawana, H. Tsuchiya, “Cut-off Wavelength Measurements for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1101 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Novel Method for Measuring Cutoff Wavelength of HE21-, TE01-, and TM01-Modes,” Electron. Lett. 15, 410 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Yamauchi, M. Miyamoto, K. Inada, “Practical Determination of Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Single-Mode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 550 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. A. Bhagavatula, W. F. Love, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, “Refracted Power Technique for Cutoff Wavelength Measurement in Single-Mode Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 16, 695 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, T. Edahiro, “Single-Mode Fibers with Asymmetrical Refractive-Index Pits on Both Sides of Cores,” Electron. Lett. 17, 191 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Kato, “Fusion Splicing of Polarization Preserving Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 24, (1Aug.1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Imai, E. H. Hara, “Excitation of Fundamental and Low-Order Modes of Optical Fiber Waveguides with Gaussian Beams. 2: Offset Beams,” Appl. Opt. 14, 169 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  14. E. Snitzer, “Cylindrical Dielectric Modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 491 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Tanaka, Y. Suematsu, “An Exact Analysis of Cylindrical Fiber with Index Distribution by Matrix Method and its Application to Focusing Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. 59-E, 1 (1976).
  16. Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, “Mode Field Diameter Measurement in Single-Mode Fibers by Near-Field and Far-Field Techniques,” to be submitted to IEEE J. Lightwave Technology.

1985 (1)

Y. Kato, “Fusion Splicing of Polarization Preserving Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 24, (1Aug.1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (3)

M. Tateda, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Design Consideration on Single-Mode Fiber Parameters,” Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) J56-B, 324 (1982).

L. Jeunhomme, “Single-Mode Fiber Design for Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 573 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Yamauchi, M. Miyamoto, K. Inada, “Practical Determination of Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Single-Mode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

C. A. Millar, “Direct Method of Determining Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 458 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, T. Edahiro, “Single-Mode Fibers with Asymmetrical Refractive-Index Pits on Both Sides of Cores,” Electron. Lett. 17, 191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

V. A. Bhagavatula, W. F. Love, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, “Refracted Power Technique for Cutoff Wavelength Measurement in Single-Mode Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 16, 695 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Novel Method for Measuring Cutoff Wavelength of HE21-, TE01-, and TM01-Modes,” Electron. Lett. 15, 410 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Murakami, A. Kawana, H. Tsuchiya, “Cut-off Wavelength Measurements for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1101 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, “Cutoff Frequency in Radially Inhomogeneous Single-Mode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 13, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, R. B. Dyott, “Determination of Core Diameter and Refractive-Index Difference of Single-Mode Fibers by Observation of the Far-Field Pattern,” IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. 1, 13 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. Katsuyama, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, M. Nakahara, “A New Method for Measuring the V-Value of a Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 12, 669 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanaka, Y. Suematsu, “An Exact Analysis of Cylindrical Fiber with Index Distribution by Matrix Method and its Application to Focusing Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. 59-E, 1 (1976).

1975 (1)

1961 (1)

Bhagavatula, V. A.

V. A. Bhagavatula, W. F. Love, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, “Refracted Power Technique for Cutoff Wavelength Measurement in Single-Mode Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 16, 695 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dyott, R. B.

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, R. B. Dyott, “Determination of Core Diameter and Refractive-Index Difference of Single-Mode Fibers by Observation of the Far-Field Pattern,” IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. 1, 13 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Edahiro, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, T. Edahiro, “Single-Mode Fibers with Asymmetrical Refractive-Index Pits on Both Sides of Cores,” Electron. Lett. 17, 191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gambling, W. A.

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, “Cutoff Frequency in Radially Inhomogeneous Single-Mode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 13, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, R. B. Dyott, “Determination of Core Diameter and Refractive-Index Difference of Single-Mode Fibers by Observation of the Far-Field Pattern,” IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. 1, 13 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hara, E. H.

Hosaka, T.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, T. Edahiro, “Single-Mode Fibers with Asymmetrical Refractive-Index Pits on Both Sides of Cores,” Electron. Lett. 17, 191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Imai, M.

Inada, K.

R. Yamauchi, M. Miyamoto, K. Inada, “Practical Determination of Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Single-Mode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jeunhomme, L.

L. Jeunhomme, “Single-Mode Fiber Design for Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 573 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, “Fusion Splicing of Polarization Preserving Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 24, (1Aug.1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tateda, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Design Consideration on Single-Mode Fiber Parameters,” Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) J56-B, 324 (1982).

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Novel Method for Measuring Cutoff Wavelength of HE21-, TE01-, and TM01-Modes,” Electron. Lett. 15, 410 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Katsuyama, Y.

Y. Katsuyama, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, M. Nakahara, “A New Method for Measuring the V-Value of a Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 12, 669 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kawana, A.

Keck, D. B.

V. A. Bhagavatula, W. F. Love, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, “Refracted Power Technique for Cutoff Wavelength Measurement in Single-Mode Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 16, 695 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Novel Method for Measuring Cutoff Wavelength of HE21-, TE01-, and TM01-Modes,” Electron. Lett. 15, 410 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, “Mode Field Diameter Measurement in Single-Mode Fibers by Near-Field and Far-Field Techniques,” to be submitted to IEEE J. Lightwave Technology.

Love, W. F.

V. A. Bhagavatula, W. F. Love, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, “Refracted Power Technique for Cutoff Wavelength Measurement in Single-Mode Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 16, 695 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, H.

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, “Cutoff Frequency in Radially Inhomogeneous Single-Mode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 13, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, R. B. Dyott, “Determination of Core Diameter and Refractive-Index Difference of Single-Mode Fibers by Observation of the Far-Field Pattern,” IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. 1, 13 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Millar, C. A.

C. A. Millar, “Direct Method of Determining Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 458 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, M.

R. Yamauchi, M. Miyamoto, K. Inada, “Practical Determination of Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Single-Mode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Nakahara, M.

Y. Katsuyama, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, M. Nakahara, “A New Method for Measuring the V-Value of a Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 12, 669 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ohashi, M.

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, “Mode Field Diameter Measurement in Single-Mode Fibers by Near-Field and Far-Field Techniques,” to be submitted to IEEE J. Lightwave Technology.

Okamoto, K.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, T. Edahiro, “Single-Mode Fibers with Asymmetrical Refractive-Index Pits on Both Sides of Cores,” Electron. Lett. 17, 191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, “Cutoff Frequency in Radially Inhomogeneous Single-Mode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 13, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, R. B. Dyott, “Determination of Core Diameter and Refractive-Index Difference of Single-Mode Fibers by Observation of the Far-Field Pattern,” IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. 1, 13 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, Y.

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, T. Edahiro, “Single-Mode Fibers with Asymmetrical Refractive-Index Pits on Both Sides of Cores,” Electron. Lett. 17, 191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Seikai, S.

M. Tateda, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Design Consideration on Single-Mode Fiber Parameters,” Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) J56-B, 324 (1982).

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Novel Method for Measuring Cutoff Wavelength of HE21-, TE01-, and TM01-Modes,” Electron. Lett. 15, 410 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, “Mode Field Diameter Measurement in Single-Mode Fibers by Near-Field and Far-Field Techniques,” to be submitted to IEEE J. Lightwave Technology.

Snitzer, E.

Suematsu, Y.

T. Tanaka, Y. Suematsu, “An Exact Analysis of Cylindrical Fiber with Index Distribution by Matrix Method and its Application to Focusing Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. 59-E, 1 (1976).

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, Y. Suematsu, “An Exact Analysis of Cylindrical Fiber with Index Distribution by Matrix Method and its Application to Focusing Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. 59-E, 1 (1976).

Tateda, M.

M. Tateda, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Design Consideration on Single-Mode Fiber Parameters,” Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) J56-B, 324 (1982).

Tokuda, M.

Y. Katsuyama, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, M. Nakahara, “A New Method for Measuring the V-Value of a Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 12, 669 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

Uchida, N.

M. Tateda, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Design Consideration on Single-Mode Fiber Parameters,” Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) J56-B, 324 (1982).

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Novel Method for Measuring Cutoff Wavelength of HE21-, TE01-, and TM01-Modes,” Electron. Lett. 15, 410 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Katsuyama, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, M. Nakahara, “A New Method for Measuring the V-Value of a Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 12, 669 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Westwig, R. A.

V. A. Bhagavatula, W. F. Love, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, “Refracted Power Technique for Cutoff Wavelength Measurement in Single-Mode Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 16, 695 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yamauchi, R.

R. Yamauchi, M. Miyamoto, K. Inada, “Practical Determination of Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Single-Mode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (7)

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, “Cutoff Frequency in Radially Inhomogeneous Single-Mode Fiber,” Electron. Lett. 13, 139 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Y. Katsuyama, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, M. Nakahara, “A New Method for Measuring the V-Value of a Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 12, 669 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Millar, “Direct Method of Determining Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Monomode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 17, 458 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Novel Method for Measuring Cutoff Wavelength of HE21-, TE01-, and TM01-Modes,” Electron. Lett. 15, 410 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. Yamauchi, M. Miyamoto, K. Inada, “Practical Determination of Equivalent-Step-Index Profiles for Single-Mode Fibers,” Electron. Lett. 18, 550 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Bhagavatula, W. F. Love, D. B. Keck, R. A. Westwig, “Refracted Power Technique for Cutoff Wavelength Measurement in Single-Mode Waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 16, 695 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. Hosaka, K. Okamoto, Y. Sasaki, T. Edahiro, “Single-Mode Fibers with Asymmetrical Refractive-Index Pits on Both Sides of Cores,” Electron. Lett. 17, 191 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. (1)

W. A. Gambling, D. N. Payne, H. Matsumura, R. B. Dyott, “Determination of Core Diameter and Refractive-Index Difference of Single-Mode Fibers by Observation of the Far-Field Pattern,” IEE J. Microwave Opt. Acoust. 1, 13 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

L. Jeunhomme, “Single-Mode Fiber Design for Long-Haul Transmission,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-30, 573 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Trans. IECE Jpn. (1)

T. Tanaka, Y. Suematsu, “An Exact Analysis of Cylindrical Fiber with Index Distribution by Matrix Method and its Application to Focusing Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. 59-E, 1 (1976).

Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) (1)

M. Tateda, Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Design Consideration on Single-Mode Fiber Parameters,” Trans. IECE Jpn. (in Japanese) J56-B, 324 (1982).

Other (1)

M. Ohashi, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, “Mode Field Diameter Measurement in Single-Mode Fibers by Near-Field and Far-Field Techniques,” to be submitted to IEEE J. Lightwave Technology.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for measuring cutoff wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Far-filed patterns observed after passage through the analyzer set in the parallel and cross detections.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Exciting power change of the second-order modes against core-axis misalignment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured output intensity as a function of wavelength for the present method.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured result of the conventional bending method.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index profiles use for the measurement.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of measured cutoff wavelength on fiber length.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Structural Characteristics of Single-Polarization Fiber

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of Cutoff Wavelengths Obtained by Theoretical Calculation and Present Measurement

Metrics