Abstract

A novel approach to 360° measurement and reconstruction of the surface topography of 3-D diffuse objects is presented. The method is fully automated and based on the principle of phase-measuring profilometry with a projected sinusoidal grating. A complete 3-D shape is reconstructed from a series of line-section profiles corresponding to discrete angular positions of the object. The system consists simply of a slide projector with a translatable grating, a linear detector array, and a microcomputer for control and processing. Experimental results for a general 3-D object and a performance analysis are presented.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. P. Casasent, Ed., Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 521 (1985).
  2. D. P. Casasent, Ed., Robotics and Industrial Inspection, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 360 (1982).
  3. B. R. Altschuler, Ed., 3 D Machine Perception, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 283 (1981).
  4. R. E. Herron, Ed., Biostereometrics, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 361 (1983).
  5. B. Bhanu, “Representation and Shape Matching of 3-D Objects,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. PAMI-6, 340 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. G. Saunders, “Replication from 360-degree Moire Sensing,” in Moire Topography and Spinal Deformity, M. S. Moreland et al., Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1981), p. 76.
  7. V. Srinivasan, H. C. Liu, M. Halioua, “Automated Phase-Measuring Profilometry of 3-D Diffuse Objects,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3105 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. V. Srinivasan, H. C. Liu, M. Halioua, “Automated Phase-Measuring Profilometry: A Phase Mapping Approach,” Appl. Opt. 24, 185 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

D. P. Casasent, Ed., Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 521 (1985).

V. Srinivasan, H. C. Liu, M. Halioua, “Automated Phase-Measuring Profilometry: A Phase Mapping Approach,” Appl. Opt. 24, 185 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

B. Bhanu, “Representation and Shape Matching of 3-D Objects,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. PAMI-6, 340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

V. Srinivasan, H. C. Liu, M. Halioua, “Automated Phase-Measuring Profilometry of 3-D Diffuse Objects,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3105 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

R. E. Herron, Ed., Biostereometrics, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 361 (1983).

1982

D. P. Casasent, Ed., Robotics and Industrial Inspection, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 360 (1982).

1981

B. R. Altschuler, Ed., 3 D Machine Perception, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 283 (1981).

3 D Machine Perception

B. R. Altschuler, Ed., 3 D Machine Perception, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 283 (1981).

Appl. Opt.

Biostereometrics

R. E. Herron, Ed., Biostereometrics, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 361 (1983).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell.

B. Bhanu, “Representation and Shape Matching of 3-D Objects,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. PAMI-6, 340 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision

D. P. Casasent, Ed., Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 521 (1985).

Robotics and Industrial Inspection

D. P. Casasent, Ed., Robotics and Industrial Inspection, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 360 (1982).

Other

C. G. Saunders, “Replication from 360-degree Moire Sensing,” in Moire Topography and Spinal Deformity, M. S. Moreland et al., Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1981), p. 76.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement: (a) front view in the longitudinal section; (b) top view in the horizontal section at D.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of eccentric positioning of the detector array.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the complete system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Development of the mannequin head in the θ direction.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Different views of the reconstructed 360° shape of the head: (a) front view; (b) left side view; (c) back view; (d) top view.

Equations (12)

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X = R sin ( θ ) ( 1 Δ r / R ) ,
Z = R cos ( θ ) ( 1 Δ r / R ) .
ϕ D = 2 π n + tan 1 [ 3 ( I 3 I 2 ) / ( 2 I 1 I 2 I 3 ) ] ,
Δ r = h = ( AC / d ) l 0 ( 1 AC / d ) 1 ,
Δ r = ( AC / d ) l 0 .
X = sin ( θ ) ( R AC l 0 / d ) ,
Z = cos ( θ ) ( R AC l 0 / d ) .
sin β = / R , cos β = ( R δ ) / R ,
δ = 2 / 2 R ,
Δ r = ( h δ ) cos β .
e = h Δ r = ( 2 / 2 R ) ( 1 + h / R ) .
e max = 2 / R .

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