Abstract

Holographic parameters of dichromated gelatin layers are improved by introducing electron donors such as N-N′ dimethylformamide into the layers. Simple reflection holograms are recorded. Their diffraction efficiency is greater compared with that of standard dichromated gelatin holograms. Recording at 6 mJ/cm2 (λ = 488 nm) gives a diffraction efficiency of ∼40%. The presence of electron donors does not deteriorate the hologram SNR. Heat treatment of recorded but undeveloped holograms leads to higher holographic sensitivity. EPR experiments show that the speed of photoreduction of chromium ions is changed by electron donors and by baking. This is confirmed by refractive-index and gelatin-melting-point temperature measurements. Baking affects the position of the diffraction efficiency spectral maximum as well.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. B. Wiberg, Oxidation in Organic Chemistry, Part A (Academic, New York, 1963).
  2. P. R. Bontchev, M. Miteva, P. Russev, G. Petrov, “Solvent Effect on the Mechanism of Chromium(VI) Complex Formation Studied by EPR,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 41, 1451 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Russev, Ph.D. Thesis, Sofia U., Chemistry Department, Bulgaria (1981).
  4. J. Kosar, Nonsilver Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).
  5. P. R. Bontchev, A. Malinovski, M. Miteva, K. Kabassanov, “Intermediate Cr(V) Complex Species and Their Role in the Process of Cr(VI) Reduction by Ethylene Glycole,” J. Inorg. Chem. Acta 6, 499 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Westheimer, F. Holloway, M. Cohen, “The Mechanism of Cromic Acid Oxydation of Isopropyl Alcohol,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 65 (1951).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (2)

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

P. R. Bontchev, M. Miteva, P. Russev, G. Petrov, “Solvent Effect on the Mechanism of Chromium(VI) Complex Formation Studied by EPR,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 41, 1451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. R. Bontchev, A. Malinovski, M. Miteva, K. Kabassanov, “Intermediate Cr(V) Complex Species and Their Role in the Process of Cr(VI) Reduction by Ethylene Glycole,” J. Inorg. Chem. Acta 6, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

F. Westheimer, F. Holloway, M. Cohen, “The Mechanism of Cromic Acid Oxydation of Isopropyl Alcohol,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 65 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Bontchev, P. R.

P. R. Bontchev, M. Miteva, P. Russev, G. Petrov, “Solvent Effect on the Mechanism of Chromium(VI) Complex Formation Studied by EPR,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 41, 1451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bontchev, A. Malinovski, M. Miteva, K. Kabassanov, “Intermediate Cr(V) Complex Species and Their Role in the Process of Cr(VI) Reduction by Ethylene Glycole,” J. Inorg. Chem. Acta 6, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M.

F. Westheimer, F. Holloway, M. Cohen, “The Mechanism of Cromic Acid Oxydation of Isopropyl Alcohol,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 65 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, F.

F. Westheimer, F. Holloway, M. Cohen, “The Mechanism of Cromic Acid Oxydation of Isopropyl Alcohol,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 65 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Kabassanov, K.

P. R. Bontchev, A. Malinovski, M. Miteva, K. Kabassanov, “Intermediate Cr(V) Complex Species and Their Role in the Process of Cr(VI) Reduction by Ethylene Glycole,” J. Inorg. Chem. Acta 6, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kandilarov, P.

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kosar, J.

J. Kosar, Nonsilver Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).

Malinovski, A.

P. R. Bontchev, A. Malinovski, M. Miteva, K. Kabassanov, “Intermediate Cr(V) Complex Species and Their Role in the Process of Cr(VI) Reduction by Ethylene Glycole,” J. Inorg. Chem. Acta 6, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Mazakova, M.

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Miteva, M.

P. R. Bontchev, M. Miteva, P. Russev, G. Petrov, “Solvent Effect on the Mechanism of Chromium(VI) Complex Formation Studied by EPR,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 41, 1451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Bontchev, A. Malinovski, M. Miteva, K. Kabassanov, “Intermediate Cr(V) Complex Species and Their Role in the Process of Cr(VI) Reduction by Ethylene Glycole,” J. Inorg. Chem. Acta 6, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pantcheva, M.

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, G.

P. R. Bontchev, M. Miteva, P. Russev, G. Petrov, “Solvent Effect on the Mechanism of Chromium(VI) Complex Formation Studied by EPR,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 41, 1451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Russev, P.

P. R. Bontchev, M. Miteva, P. Russev, G. Petrov, “Solvent Effect on the Mechanism of Chromium(VI) Complex Formation Studied by EPR,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 41, 1451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Russev, Ph.D. Thesis, Sofia U., Chemistry Department, Bulgaria (1981).

Sharlandjiev, P.

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Westheimer, F.

F. Westheimer, F. Holloway, M. Cohen, “The Mechanism of Cromic Acid Oxydation of Isopropyl Alcohol,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 65 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Wiberg, K. B.

K. B. Wiberg, Oxidation in Organic Chemistry, Part A (Academic, New York, 1963).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

F. Westheimer, F. Holloway, M. Cohen, “The Mechanism of Cromic Acid Oxydation of Isopropyl Alcohol,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 73, 65 (1951).
[CrossRef]

J. Inorg. Chem. Acta (1)

P. R. Bontchev, A. Malinovski, M. Miteva, K. Kabassanov, “Intermediate Cr(V) Complex Species and Their Role in the Process of Cr(VI) Reduction by Ethylene Glycole,” J. Inorg. Chem. Acta 6, 499 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. (1)

P. R. Bontchev, M. Miteva, P. Russev, G. Petrov, “Solvent Effect on the Mechanism of Chromium(VI) Complex Formation Studied by EPR,” J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 41, 1451 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part I,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 311 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Mazakova, M. Pantcheva, P. Kandilarov, P. Sharlandjiev, “Dichromated Gelatin for Volume Holographic Recording with High Sensitivity. Part II,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 14, 317 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

P. Russev, Ph.D. Thesis, Sofia U., Chemistry Department, Bulgaria (1981).

J. Kosar, Nonsilver Light Sensitive Systems (Wiley, New York, 1965).

K. B. Wiberg, Oxidation in Organic Chemistry, Part A (Academic, New York, 1963).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DE recording energy dependence. Curves 1 and 1′ are for DCG/DMF; curves 2 and 2′ are for DCG/STAN. Curves 1 and 2, without heat treatment. Curves 1′ and 2′, baking for 30 min at 60°C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical EPR DCG/DMF layer signals: Curve 1, before exposure, curve 2, after exposure; curve 3, after heat treatment.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Melting point temperatures after 25 mJ/cm2 as a function of baking temperature: Curve 1, DCG/DMF, curve 2, DCG/stand. Baking duration, 30 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Change in refractive index with baking duration. Curve 1, DCG/DMF; curve 2, DCG/stand. Exposures of 25 mJ/cm2 and baking at 60° C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

DE dependence on baking temperature for DCG/DMF (1) and DCG/stand (2). Exposure, 4 mJ/cm2; heat treatment, 30 min.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

DE dependence of DCG/DMF holograms exposed at 4 mJ/cm2 on baking duration for different baking temperatures: curve 1,40°; curve 2, 60°; curve 3, 80°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

DE wavelength dependence of DCG/DMF hologram. Recording energy is 25 mJ/cm2, and baking duration is 30 min. Curve 1, no heat treatment; curve 2, baking at 50°; curve 3, 70°; curve 4, 80°.

Equations (3)

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Cr 6 + h ν Cr 4 + ;
Cr 4 + + Cr 6 + 2 Cr 5 + ;
3 Cr 5 + H 2 O 2 Cr 6 + + Cr 3 + .

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