Abstract

The large amount of data that holographic interferometry provides requires computer-aided analysis. We present here a holographic system with subsequent image processing enabling one to analyze complete interferograms. This technique, based on a phase-shift method, achieves high accuracy and simultaneously suppresses background intensity, shadowing, etc. The technique is shown both theoretically and experimentally to be insensitive to changes in wavelength, thus allowing the use of pulsed lasers. Two diverse examples which differ significantly in recording and measuring parameters are presented.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. F. Bellani, A. Sona, “Measurement of Three-Dimensional Displacements by Scanning a Double-Exposure Hologram,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1337 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Ek, K. Biedermann, “Analysis of a System for Hologram Interferometry with a Continuously Scanning Reconstruction Beam,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2535 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Lanzl, M. Schluter, “Video-Electronic Analysis of Holographic Interferograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1977).
  4. B. Fischer, J. Geldmacher, W. Juptner, “Untersuchungen zur automatisierten Erkennung und Verarbeitung holografischer Interferenzmuster mit dem Zeilen-Scan-Verfahren,” in Proceedings, Laser 79 Optoelectronic Conference, Munich (1979), p. 412.
  5. H. Kreitlow, T. M. Kreis, “Quantitative Evaluation of Holographic Interference Patterns Under Image Processing Aspects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1979).
  6. R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, J. F. Willemin, “Fringe Interpolation by Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry: Reducing Sensitivity to Hologram Misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. H. Bruning, J. E. Gallagher, D. P. Rosenfeld, A. D. White, D. J. Brangaccio, D. R. Herriott, “Digital Wavefront Measuring Interferometer for Testing Optical Surfaces and Lenses,” Appl. Opt. 13, 2693 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. B. Dorbaud, “Die 3-Interferogramm-Methode zur automatischen Streifenauswertung in rechngergesteuerten digitalen Zweistrahlinterferometern,” Optik 60, 161 (1982).
  9. J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric Optical Metrology: Basic Principles and New Systems,” Laser Focus65 (May1982).
  10. A. F. Fercher, “Neue Interferometer zur Optikprüfung;,” Laser Optoelektronik 4, 301 (1983).
  11. J. Schwider, R. Burow, K.-E. Elssner, J. Grzanna, R. Spolaczyk, K. Merkel, “Digital Wave-Front Measuring Interferometry: Some Systematic Error Sources,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3421 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Dandliker, E. Marom, F. M. Mottier, “Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 23 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Prog. Opt. 17, 1 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Steinbichler, 8207 Endorf, W. Germany; private communication.

1983 (2)

1982 (3)

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, J. F. Willemin, “Fringe Interpolation by Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry: Reducing Sensitivity to Hologram Misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Dorbaud, “Die 3-Interferogramm-Methode zur automatischen Streifenauswertung in rechngergesteuerten digitalen Zweistrahlinterferometern,” Optik 60, 161 (1982).

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric Optical Metrology: Basic Principles and New Systems,” Laser Focus65 (May1982).

1980 (1)

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Prog. Opt. 17, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. Kreitlow, T. M. Kreis, “Quantitative Evaluation of Holographic Interference Patterns Under Image Processing Aspects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1979).

1977 (2)

F. Lanzl, M. Schluter, “Video-Electronic Analysis of Holographic Interferograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1977).

L. Ek, K. Biedermann, “Analysis of a System for Hologram Interferometry with a Continuously Scanning Reconstruction Beam,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2535 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

1974 (2)

Bellani, V. F.

Biedermann, K.

Brangaccio, D. J.

Bruning, J. H.

Burow, R.

Dandliker, R.

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, J. F. Willemin, “Fringe Interpolation by Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry: Reducing Sensitivity to Hologram Misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Prog. Opt. 17, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. Dandliker, E. Marom, F. M. Mottier, “Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 23 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Dorbaud, B.

B. Dorbaud, “Die 3-Interferogramm-Methode zur automatischen Streifenauswertung in rechngergesteuerten digitalen Zweistrahlinterferometern,” Optik 60, 161 (1982).

Ek, L.

Elssner, K.-E.

Fercher, A. F.

A. F. Fercher, “Neue Interferometer zur Optikprüfung;,” Laser Optoelektronik 4, 301 (1983).

Fischer, B.

B. Fischer, J. Geldmacher, W. Juptner, “Untersuchungen zur automatisierten Erkennung und Verarbeitung holografischer Interferenzmuster mit dem Zeilen-Scan-Verfahren,” in Proceedings, Laser 79 Optoelectronic Conference, Munich (1979), p. 412.

Gallagher, J. E.

Geldmacher, J.

B. Fischer, J. Geldmacher, W. Juptner, “Untersuchungen zur automatisierten Erkennung und Verarbeitung holografischer Interferenzmuster mit dem Zeilen-Scan-Verfahren,” in Proceedings, Laser 79 Optoelectronic Conference, Munich (1979), p. 412.

Grzanna, J.

Herriott, D. R.

Juptner, W.

B. Fischer, J. Geldmacher, W. Juptner, “Untersuchungen zur automatisierten Erkennung und Verarbeitung holografischer Interferenzmuster mit dem Zeilen-Scan-Verfahren,” in Proceedings, Laser 79 Optoelectronic Conference, Munich (1979), p. 412.

Kreis, T. M.

H. Kreitlow, T. M. Kreis, “Quantitative Evaluation of Holographic Interference Patterns Under Image Processing Aspects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1979).

Kreitlow, H.

H. Kreitlow, T. M. Kreis, “Quantitative Evaluation of Holographic Interference Patterns Under Image Processing Aspects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1979).

Lanzl, F.

F. Lanzl, M. Schluter, “Video-Electronic Analysis of Holographic Interferograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1977).

Marom, E.

Merkel, K.

Mottier, F. M.

Rosenfeld, D. P.

Schluter, M.

F. Lanzl, M. Schluter, “Video-Electronic Analysis of Holographic Interferograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1977).

Schwider, J.

Sona, A.

Spolaczyk, R.

Steinbichler, H.

H. Steinbichler, 8207 Endorf, W. Germany; private communication.

Thalmann, R.

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, J. F. Willemin, “Fringe Interpolation by Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry: Reducing Sensitivity to Hologram Misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301 (1982).
[CrossRef]

White, A. D.

Willemin, J. F.

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, J. F. Willemin, “Fringe Interpolation by Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry: Reducing Sensitivity to Hologram Misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric Optical Metrology: Basic Principles and New Systems,” Laser Focus65 (May1982).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Laser Focus (1)

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric Optical Metrology: Basic Principles and New Systems,” Laser Focus65 (May1982).

Laser Optoelektronik (1)

A. F. Fercher, “Neue Interferometer zur Optikprüfung;,” Laser Optoelektronik 4, 301 (1983).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Dandliker, R. Thalmann, J. F. Willemin, “Fringe Interpolation by Two-Reference-Beam Holographic Interferometry: Reducing Sensitivity to Hologram Misalignment,” Opt. Commun. 42, 301 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Optik (1)

B. Dorbaud, “Die 3-Interferogramm-Methode zur automatischen Streifenauswertung in rechngergesteuerten digitalen Zweistrahlinterferometern,” Optik 60, 161 (1982).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

H. Kreitlow, T. M. Kreis, “Quantitative Evaluation of Holographic Interference Patterns Under Image Processing Aspects,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 210, 196 (1979).

F. Lanzl, M. Schluter, “Video-Electronic Analysis of Holographic Interferograms,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 136, 166 (1977).

Prog. Opt. (1)

R. Dandliker, “Heterodyne Holographic Interferometry,” Prog. Opt. 17, 1 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Steinbichler, 8207 Endorf, W. Germany; private communication.

B. Fischer, J. Geldmacher, W. Juptner, “Untersuchungen zur automatisierten Erkennung und Verarbeitung holografischer Interferenzmuster mit dem Zeilen-Scan-Verfahren,” in Proceedings, Laser 79 Optoelectronic Conference, Munich (1979), p. 412.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Change Δ in the length of wave vectors k1,2 can be corrected by a change of the mutual angle δ of the reference beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of the optical setup for two-reference beam holography. The two reference beams are produced by a small misalignment of the interferometer. During each of the two alternative exposures, one of the reference beams is switched on by a shutter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the optical reconstruction setup and the image processing system. For reconstruction both reference beams illuminate the hologram. The phase relationship between the beams is actively controlled by twin diodes. The interferograms are recorded by a TV camera, digitized and processed in the image processing system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Digitized interferogram of the panel deformation; (b) the analyzed interference phase mod 2π; (c) the picture of the out-of-plane component of the deformation scaled with 256 grey levels; (d) pseudo-3-D plot of the deformation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sketch of the optical setup for measuring the pressure distribution in a laboratory simulated tornado with the two-reference beam method. The first exposure is made with the mirror in position 1 and the tornado off, the second with the mirror in position 2 and the tornado on. Both exposures are made with a Q -switched ruby laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Interferogram of the tornado; (b) the analyzed interference phase mod 2π; (c) the cleaned up interferogram; (d) the result of the computer-aided analysis. The position of the tornado and the pressure distribution inside it can be derived from these data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Double-exposure interferogram with a linear phase shift along the horizontal axis; (b) the interference phase mod 2π, statistic fluctuations are best discernible at the phase jumps; (c) result of the analysis; (d) 3-D plot of the result showing the statistic fluctuation and, hardly discernible, the periodic deviations.

Equations (5)

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I i ( x , y ) = I 0 ( x , y ) { 1 + m ( x , y ) cos [ φ ( x , y ) + φ i ] } ,
φ ( x , y ) = arctan 3 I 3 I 2 2 I 1 I 2 I 3
φ δ = k cos δ k 1 k 2 | k 1 k 2 | X H Δ δ ,
φ K = Δ k sin δ k 1 k 2 | k 2 k 2 | X H ,
Δ k δ + k Δ δ = 0 or k δ = const .

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