Abstract

A mixture of malachite green and ammonium dichromate has been used to photosensitize gelatin films. When this material is irradiated with polarized light an anisotropy is induced with its optical axis parallel to the electric vector of the incident vibration. After proper development of the material, the parts that showed anisotropy present a change in the refractive index of the gelatin independent of the orientation of the optical axis of the exposed part. On this basis the recording material was used to record interference gratings. When the two coherent recording beams had an angle α = 90° between their relative polarizations, the spatial frequency of the resultant phase grating was twice the one presented when α = 0°.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Generation of Uniaxial Medium from Bleached Photographic Plates,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 27, 61 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 525 (1976).
  4. S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Holographic Recording and Reconstruction of Polarized Light with Dyed Plastic,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4313 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. I. Schneider, M. E. Gingerich, “Diffraction by M centers in KCl,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2428 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Calixto, C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, “Real Time Optical Image and Polarizing Holography with Dyed Gelatin,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.
  7. D. A. Macroft, “The Production of DCG Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).
  8. A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Sec. 7.2).
  10. Ref. 9, Sec. 1.4.
  11. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver–Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,”; Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
    [CrossRef]

1984

1979

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver–Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,”; Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Generation of Uniaxial Medium from Bleached Photographic Plates,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 27, 61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 525 (1976).

1975

1973

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Sec. 7.2).

Calixto, S.

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Holographic Recording and Reconstruction of Polarized Light with Dyed Plastic,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4313 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Calixto, C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, “Real Time Optical Image and Polarizing Holography with Dyed Gelatin,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Gingerich, M. E.

Graube, A.

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Generation of Uniaxial Medium from Bleached Photographic Plates,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver–Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,”; Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 27, 61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kakischavili, D.

D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 525 (1976).

Lessard, R. A.

S. Calixto, R. A. Lessard, “Holographic Recording and Reconstruction of Polarized Light with Dyed Plastic,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4313 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Calixto, C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, “Real Time Optical Image and Polarizing Holography with Dyed Gelatin,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Macroft, D. A.

D. A. Macroft, “The Production of DCG Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).

May, M.

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver–Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,”; Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Generation of Uniaxial Medium from Bleached Photographic Plates,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 27, 61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, I.

Shaverdova, V. G.

D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 525 (1976).

Solano, C.

S. Calixto, C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, “Real Time Optical Image and Polarizing Holography with Dyed Gelatin,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Sec. 7.2).

Appl. Opt.

Opt. Commun.

A. Graube, “Holograms Recorded with Red Light in Dye Sensitized Dichromated Gelatin,” Opt. Commun. 8, 251 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Generation of Uniaxial Medium from Bleached Photographic Plates,” Opt. Commun. 28, 30 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May “Application of the Weigert Effect to the Contrast Reversal of a Black and White Transparency,” Opt. Commun. 27, 61 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver–Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,”; Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc.

D. Kakischavili, V. G. Shaverdova, “Weigert Effect in Dyes of the Triphenylmethane Group,” Opt. Spectrosc. 41, 525 (1976).

Other

S. Calixto, C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, “Real Time Optical Image and Polarizing Holography with Dyed Gelatin,” Appl. Opt., submitted for publication.

D. A. Macroft, “The Production of DCG Emulsions for Recording Phase Holograms,” M.Sc. Dissertation, Air Force Institute of Technology (Dec.1975).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1980), Sec. 7.2).

Ref. 9, Sec. 1.4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Curves of the absorbance of malachite green vs wavelengths in (a) an aqueous solution and (b) a gelatin film (10-μm thickness).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorbance of the dyed gelatin plate vs wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First-order diffraction efficiency as a function of the exposure. The intensity beam ratio (R) is a parameter (α = 0°).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Diffracted orders given by two gratings made with the same angle between the recorded beams. The relative polarization between the two beams is (a) parallel (α = 0°) and (b) perpendicular (α = 90°).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffraction efficiency as a function of the exposure for a grating made with perpendicular polarizations between the recording beams (α = 90°).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diffracted orders given by a grating where the angle of polarization between the recording beams was α = 89°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

First-order diffraction efficiency as a function of the exposure energy for different angles (α) of polarization between the recording beams. R is the beam intensity ratio, R = I/Iref, where I is the component of the object beam parallel to the reference beam and Iref is the intensity of the reference beam.

Tables (1)

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Table I Development Technique for Dye Gelatin Plates

Equations (2)

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I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 cos φ ,
A 2 = 2 I ( 1 | sin φ | ) ,

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