Abstract

The technique of total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) introduced by P. Temple for inspection of the surface structure of transparent substrates is extended here for use with materials exhibiting high bulk scatter. A strong dependence of scratch illumination on the angle between scratches and the S polarization direction is observed and explained via a simple model.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. Temple, “Total Internal Reflection Microscopy: A Surface Inspection Technique,” Appl. Opt. 20, 2656 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 271.
  3. Note that any polarization induced normal to the scratch (a1) would emit mostly in the direction of the scratch. Such emitted fields would fall mainly outside the acceptance angle of the microscope objective.
  4. Strictly speaking there should be another summation of the fields over the solid angle intercepted by the microscope objective lens. Both r and h would then be variable. However, we shall assume that the angle between r and p is always close to π/2.

1981 (1)

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 271.

Temple, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Other (3)

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1962), p. 271.

Note that any polarization induced normal to the scratch (a1) would emit mostly in the direction of the scratch. Such emitted fields would fall mainly outside the acceptance angle of the microscope objective.

Strictly speaking there should be another summation of the fields over the solid angle intercepted by the microscope objective lens. Both r and h would then be variable. However, we shall assume that the angle between r and p is always close to π/2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the apparatus used by Temple for total internal reflection microscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the TIRM apparatus used in this work. Note that the illuminating beam totally reflects from the liquid sample interface and never penetrates the sample bulk.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of the TIRM apparatus described in this work.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Scratches on Zerodur surface observed with TIRM method; (B) scratches photographed using dark-field illumination technique.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Surface observed using s-polarized light; (B) same area observed using p-polarized light. Note that several scratches and digs are no longer visible.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometry and definition of terms used in the scratch scattering calculation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of the relative scattered light power as a function of the angle psi between the thin scratch and the s-polarization direction.

Equations (8)

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Ê s ( ρ ) = Ê 0 exp ( i k ρ sin θ sin ψ ) ,
d P = α E s ( ρ ) cos ψ d ρ .
d ρ λ r ,
d Ê = k 2 exp ( ikr ) r ( n ̂ × ρ ̂ ) × n ̂ ,
d Ê = α k 2 E s ( ρ ) cos ψ exp ( ikr ) r d P ( n ̂ × p ̂ ) × n ̂ Ê = L / 2 L / 2 d Ê .
E = α k 2 cos ψ exp ( ikr ) r L / 2 L / 2 E s ( ρ ) d ρ .
P = P 0 cos 2 ψ ( sin x x ) 2 ,
x = L k sin θ sin ψ .

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