Abstract

Stylus-profiling techniques cannot be used for surface characterization of polymeric surfaces, such as magnetic tapes, because of their relatively low hardness. An interferometric-optical-profiling microscope system was used to obtain high-accuracy surface profiles of magnetic media, rapidly and without physical contact with the sample. The profilometer consists of a conventional, reflection-type optical microscope with a Mirau two-beam interferometer attachment. The interference patterns of the surface can be observed through the eyepieces and can be detected with a solid-state linear array of 1024 detector elements. By translating the reference surface of the interferometer with a piezoelectric transducer while taking consecutive measurements, accurate surface-height measurements can be obtained from each detector element. The microscope system is controlled by a microcomputer, which communicates with a desk-top computer for further analysis of the surface-profile data. A computer-controlled specimen stage is added to increase the sample size. The reasons for selecting the Mirau two-beam interferometry are also discussed. Sample data of magnetic tapes are presented. Experimental data presented in the paper show that optimization of surface roughness is necessary to obtain optimum magnetic amplitude, friction, and wear properties.

© 1985 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, “Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 300 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Whitehouse, M. J. Phillips, “Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc.London Ser. A 290, 267 (1978);“Two-Dimensional Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser A 316, 97 (1970).
  3. J. B. P. Williamson, “Topography of Solid Surfaces,” in Proceedings, NASA Symposium on Interdisciplinary Approach to Friction and Wear, NASA SP-181 (1968), pp. 85–142.
  4. Special issues on “Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces,”Wear 57, 1–384 (1979);Wear 83, 1–409 (1982).
  5. B. Bhushan, R. L. Bradshaw, B. S. Sharma, “Friction in Magnetic Tapes II. Role of Physical Properties,” ASLE Trans. 27, 89 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Bennett, J. H. Dancy, “Stylus Profiling Instrument for Measuring Statistical Properties of Smooth Optical Surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1785 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. R. Thomas, “Surface Roughness Measurement: Alternatives to the Stylus,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth International MTDR Conference (Macmillan, London, 1979), pp. 383–390.
  8. H. Sato, M. O-Hori, “Surface Roughness Measurement by Scanning Electron Microscope,” Ann. CIRP 31, 457 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. A. Gardner, G. G. Sward, Paint Testing Manual, Physical and Chemical Examination: Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers and Colors (Gardner Laboratories Inc., Bethesda, Md.).
  10. G. M. Clarke, T. R. Thomas, “Roughness Measurement with a Laser Scanning Analyzer,” Wear 57, 107 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. C. Stover, “Roughness Characterization of Smooth Machined Surfaces by Light Scattering,” Appl. Opt. 14, 1796 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. M. Bennett, “Measurement of the rms Roughness, Autocovariance Function and Other Statistical Properties of Optical Surfaces Using a FECO Scanning Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2705 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. F. Francon, Optical Interferometry (Academic, New York, 1966).
  15. F. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971).
  16. S. Tolansky, Introduction to Interferometers (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 213 and 214.
  17. A. J. Hale, The Interference Microscope (E. & S. Livingstone, London, 1958), p. 15.
  18. C. L. Koliopoulos, “Interferometric Optical Phase Measurement Techniques,” Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1981).
  19. J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” ASLE Trans. 27, 101 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Bruning, “Fringe Scanning Interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 409–437.
  21. G. E. Sommargren, “Optical Heterodyne Profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 20, 610 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, “Phase Measurement System for Adaptive Optics,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 300, 48.1 (1981).
  23. J. C. Wyant, “Use of an ac Heterodyne Lateral Shear Interferometer with Real-Time Wavefront Corrections Systems,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2622 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. P. R. Nayak, “Random Process Model of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 93, 398 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. E. Tallian, “The Theory of Partial Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” Wear 21, 49 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. K. Gupta, N. H. Cook, “Statistical Analysis of Mechanical Interaction of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 94F, 19 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Blok, “Comments on the Paper by R. Wilson,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 212, 480 (1952).
  28. J. S. Halliday, “Surface Examination of Reflection Electron Microscopy,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. London 109, 777 (1955).
    [CrossRef]

1984 (2)

B. Bhushan, R. L. Bradshaw, B. S. Sharma, “Friction in Magnetic Tapes II. Role of Physical Properties,” ASLE Trans. 27, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” ASLE Trans. 27, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

H. Sato, M. O-Hori, “Surface Roughness Measurement by Scanning Electron Microscope,” Ann. CIRP 31, 457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

1979 (3)

Special issues on “Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces,”Wear 57, 1–384 (1979);Wear 83, 1–409 (1982).

G. M. Clarke, T. R. Thomas, “Roughness Measurement with a Laser Scanning Analyzer,” Wear 57, 107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. J. Whitehouse, M. J. Phillips, “Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc.London Ser. A 290, 267 (1978);“Two-Dimensional Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser A 316, 97 (1970).

1976 (1)

1975 (2)

1972 (2)

T. E. Tallian, “The Theory of Partial Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” Wear 21, 49 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Gupta, N. H. Cook, “Statistical Analysis of Mechanical Interaction of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 94F, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

P. R. Nayak, “Random Process Model of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 93, 398 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, “Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

J. S. Halliday, “Surface Examination of Reflection Electron Microscopy,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. London 109, 777 (1955).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

H. Blok, “Comments on the Paper by R. Wilson,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 212, 480 (1952).

Bennett, J. M.

Bhushan, B.

B. Bhushan, R. L. Bradshaw, B. S. Sharma, “Friction in Magnetic Tapes II. Role of Physical Properties,” ASLE Trans. 27, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” ASLE Trans. 27, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

H. Blok, “Comments on the Paper by R. Wilson,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 212, 480 (1952).

Bradshaw, R. L.

B. Bhushan, R. L. Bradshaw, B. S. Sharma, “Friction in Magnetic Tapes II. Role of Physical Properties,” ASLE Trans. 27, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bruning, J. H.

J. H. Bruning, “Fringe Scanning Interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 409–437.

Church, E. L.

E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, G. M.

G. M. Clarke, T. R. Thomas, “Roughness Measurement with a Laser Scanning Analyzer,” Wear 57, 107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Cook, N. H.

P. K. Gupta, N. H. Cook, “Statistical Analysis of Mechanical Interaction of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 94F, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Dancy, J. H.

Francon, F.

F. Francon, Optical Interferometry (Academic, New York, 1966).

F. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971).

Gardner, H. A.

H. A. Gardner, G. G. Sward, Paint Testing Manual, Physical and Chemical Examination: Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers and Colors (Gardner Laboratories Inc., Bethesda, Md.).

George, O. E.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” ASLE Trans. 27, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Greenwood, J. A.

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, “Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, P. K.

P. K. Gupta, N. H. Cook, “Statistical Analysis of Mechanical Interaction of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 94F, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A. J.

A. J. Hale, The Interference Microscope (E. & S. Livingstone, London, 1958), p. 15.

Halliday, J. S.

J. S. Halliday, “Surface Examination of Reflection Electron Microscopy,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. London 109, 777 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Koliopoulos, C. L.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” ASLE Trans. 27, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, “Phase Measurement System for Adaptive Optics,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 300, 48.1 (1981).

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Interferometric Optical Phase Measurement Techniques,” Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1981).

Mallick, S.

F. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971).

Nayak, P. R.

P. R. Nayak, “Random Process Model of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 93, 398 (1971).
[CrossRef]

O-Hori, M.

H. Sato, M. O-Hori, “Surface Roughness Measurement by Scanning Electron Microscope,” Ann. CIRP 31, 457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. J.

D. J. Whitehouse, M. J. Phillips, “Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc.London Ser. A 290, 267 (1978);“Two-Dimensional Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser A 316, 97 (1970).

Sato, H.

H. Sato, M. O-Hori, “Surface Roughness Measurement by Scanning Electron Microscope,” Ann. CIRP 31, 457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, B. S.

B. Bhushan, R. L. Bradshaw, B. S. Sharma, “Friction in Magnetic Tapes II. Role of Physical Properties,” ASLE Trans. 27, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sommargren, G. E.

Stover, J. C.

Sward, G. G.

H. A. Gardner, G. G. Sward, Paint Testing Manual, Physical and Chemical Examination: Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers and Colors (Gardner Laboratories Inc., Bethesda, Md.).

Tallian, T. E.

T. E. Tallian, “The Theory of Partial Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” Wear 21, 49 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, T. R.

G. M. Clarke, T. R. Thomas, “Roughness Measurement with a Laser Scanning Analyzer,” Wear 57, 107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Thomas, “Surface Roughness Measurement: Alternatives to the Stylus,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth International MTDR Conference (Macmillan, London, 1979), pp. 383–390.

Tolansky, S.

S. Tolansky, Introduction to Interferometers (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 213 and 214.

Whitehouse, D. J.

D. J. Whitehouse, M. J. Phillips, “Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc.London Ser. A 290, 267 (1978);“Two-Dimensional Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser A 316, 97 (1970).

Williamson, J. B. P.

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, “Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. B. P. Williamson, “Topography of Solid Surfaces,” in Proceedings, NASA Symposium on Interdisciplinary Approach to Friction and Wear, NASA SP-181 (1968), pp. 85–142.

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” ASLE Trans. 27, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, “Phase Measurement System for Adaptive Optics,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 300, 48.1 (1981).

J. C. Wyant, “Use of an ac Heterodyne Lateral Shear Interferometer with Real-Time Wavefront Corrections Systems,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2622 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AGARD Conf. Proc. (1)

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, “Phase Measurement System for Adaptive Optics,” AGARD Conf. Proc. 300, 48.1 (1981).

Ann. CIRP (1)

H. Sato, M. O-Hori, “Surface Roughness Measurement by Scanning Electron Microscope,” Ann. CIRP 31, 457 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

ASLE Trans. (2)

J. C. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” ASLE Trans. 27, 101 (1984).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhushan, R. L. Bradshaw, B. S. Sharma, “Friction in Magnetic Tapes II. Role of Physical Properties,” ASLE Trans. 27, 89 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Lubr. Technol. (2)

P. R. Nayak, “Random Process Model of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 93, 398 (1971).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Gupta, N. H. Cook, “Statistical Analysis of Mechanical Interaction of Rough Surfaces,” J. Lubr. Technol. 94F, 19 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. London (1)

J. S. Halliday, “Surface Examination of Reflection Electron Microscopy,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. London 109, 777 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

H. Blok, “Comments on the Paper by R. Wilson,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 212, 480 (1952).

J. A. Greenwood, J. B. P. Williamson, “Contact of Nominally Flat Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 295, 300 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc.London Ser. A (1)

D. J. Whitehouse, M. J. Phillips, “Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc.London Ser. A 290, 267 (1978);“Two-Dimensional Discrete Properties of Random Surfaces,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser A 316, 97 (1970).

Wear (4)

G. M. Clarke, T. R. Thomas, “Roughness Measurement with a Laser Scanning Analyzer,” Wear 57, 107 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Tallian, “The Theory of Partial Elastohydrodynamic Contacts,” Wear 21, 49 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Special issues on “Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces,”Wear 57, 1–384 (1979);Wear 83, 1–409 (1982).

E. L. Church, “The Measurement of Surface Texture and Topography by Differential Light Scattering,” Wear 57, 93 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. H. Bruning, “Fringe Scanning Interferometers,” in Optical Shop Testing, D. Malacara, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1978), pp. 409–437.

H. A. Gardner, G. G. Sward, Paint Testing Manual, Physical and Chemical Examination: Paints, Varnishes, Lacquers and Colors (Gardner Laboratories Inc., Bethesda, Md.).

F. Francon, Optical Interferometry (Academic, New York, 1966).

F. Francon, S. Mallick, Polarization Interferometers (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1971).

S. Tolansky, Introduction to Interferometers (Wiley, New York, 1973), pp. 213 and 214.

A. J. Hale, The Interference Microscope (E. & S. Livingstone, London, 1958), p. 15.

C. L. Koliopoulos, “Interferometric Optical Phase Measurement Techniques,” Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1981).

J. B. P. Williamson, “Topography of Solid Surfaces,” in Proceedings, NASA Symposium on Interdisciplinary Approach to Friction and Wear, NASA SP-181 (1968), pp. 85–142.

T. R. Thomas, “Surface Roughness Measurement: Alternatives to the Stylus,” in Proceedings, Nineteenth International MTDR Conference (Macmillan, London, 1979), pp. 383–390.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical micrograph of a trace made by a Talysurf 10 stylus on a typical computer tape (stylus material, diamond; stylus tip width = 2.5 μm; stylus load = 100 mg).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Mirau interferomter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the optical profilometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the optical profilometer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface profile of a magnetic tape AA at an objective magnification of 20×. (b) Histogram and distribution of surface heights.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variations of rms with number of data sets for tape AA at objective magnifications of (a) 20× and (b) 10×.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Influence of surface roughness on the coefficient of friction.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Influence of surface roughness on head wear.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of surface roughness on signal amplitude. Measurements were made at 1600 flux reversals/mm.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Repeatability Error

Tables Icon

Table II Measured Surface Topography Parameters for Tape AA at Objective Magnifications of 10× and 20× (Location 1, Fig. 6) a,b

Tables Icon

Table III Sampling Length at Different Objective Magnifications

Tables Icon

Table IV Measured Values of Typical Magnetic-Tape Surfaces

Tables Icon

Table V Signal Amplitude and Surface Topography Data for a Magnetic Tape

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

h ( x ) = ( λ / 4 π ) ϕ ( x ) .
I = I 1 + I 2 cos [ ϕ ( x ) + ϕ ( t ) ] .
A ( x ) = I 1 + I 2 [ cos ϕ ( x ) sin ϕ ( x ) ] , B ( x ) = I 1 + I 2 [ cos ϕ ( x ) + sin ϕ ( x ) ] , C ( x ) = I 1 + I 2 [ cos ϕ ( x ) + sin ϕ ( x ) ] . }
ϕ ( x ) = tan 1 { [ C ( x ) B ( x ) ] / [ A ( x ) B ( x ) ] } .
p ( x ) = ( 1 / σ 2 π ) exp [ ( x μ ) 2 / 2 σ 2 ] ,
R ( τ ) = lim T ( 1 / T ) 0 T x ( t ) x ( t + τ ) d t .
S ( f ) = R ( τ ) exp ( j 2 π f τ ) d τ .
m n = ( 2 π ) n f n S ( f ) d f .
m 0 = σ 2 , m 2 = σ θ 2 m 4 = σ 2
α = ( m 0 m 4 / m 2 2 ) = [ ( σ σ ) 2 / σ θ 4 ] ,
N 0 = ( 1 / π ) ( σ θ / σ ) , N p = ( 1 / 2 π ) ( σ / σ θ ) , N s ~ 1.2 N p 2 . }
σ net 2 = i = 1 n σ i 2 / n 2 ,
sampling length = × 200 autocorrelation distance .

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