Abstract

Over the last several years, the development of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) has progressed through simple flames of increasing complexity to practical application in internal combustion engines, simulations of gas turbine combustors, and a variety of other devices. Here, the first application of CARS to an actual afterburning jet engine is described. The CARS instrument constructed is capable of completely remote operation and permits instantaneous thermometry at a 20-Hz rate. Its design and operation as well as sample exhaust measurements will be presented.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Lapp, D. L. Hartley, Combust. Sci. Technol. 13, 199 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Lederman, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 3, 1 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. C. Eckbreth, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1471.
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Crosley, Ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry (American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Washington, D.C., 1980), Vol. 134.
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. A. Stenhouse, D. R. Williams, J. B. Cole, M. D. Swords, Appl. Opt. 18, 3819 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  7. D. Klick, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Appl. Opt. 20, 1178 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 609.
  9. K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, SAE Technical Paper 821036 (1982).
  10. G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part I, p. 575.
  13. D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Fujii, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, J. Fluids Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Ferrario, M. Garbi, C. Malvicini, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), paper WD2.
  16. A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).
  17. D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).
  18. J. W. Nibler, W. M. Shaub, J. R. McDonald, A. B. Harvey, in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, Vol. 6, J. R. Durig, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 173.
  19. S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. W. Nibler, G. V. Knighten, in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 253.
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. C. Eckbreth, P. W. Schreiber, in Chemical Applications of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy, A. B. Harvey, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), p. 27.
  22. R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1984); in press.
  23. J. F. Verdieck, J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 595.
  24. R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. J. Hall, Opt. Eng. 22, 322 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Opt. Lett. 4, 211 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. Y. Prior, Appl. Opt. 19, 1741 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Opt. Lett. 5, 380 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. Amerian Holographic Inc., Acton, Mass. 01720.
  30. A. C. Eckbreth, Appl. Opt. 22, 2118 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. M. B. Long, Department of Applied Physics, Yale U., New Haven, Conn.
  32. R. J. Hall, J. A. Shirley, Appl. Spectrosc. 37, 196 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. P. Goss, Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., R and D Status Report 6603-7 (1982).

1983 (6)

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, J. Fluids Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

R. J. Hall, Opt. Eng. 22, 322 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Appl. Opt. 22, 2118 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Hall, J. A. Shirley, Appl. Spectrosc. 37, 196 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Klick, K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Appl. Opt. 20, 1178 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (4)

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. Prior, Appl. Opt. 19, 1741 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Opt. Lett. 5, 380 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (4)

K. A. Marko, L. Rimai, Opt. Lett. 4, 211 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Stenhouse, D. R. Williams, J. B. Cole, M. D. Swords, Appl. Opt. 18, 3819 (1979).
[PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. C. Eckbreth, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1471.
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

S. Lederman, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 3, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

M. Lapp, D. L. Hartley, Combust. Sci. Technol. 13, 199 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Ali, M. F.

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

Bauman, L. E.

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

Bechtel, J. H.

J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Beiting, E. J.

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

Bonczyk, P. A.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. C. Eckbreth, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1471.
[CrossRef]

Bradley, R. P.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chraplyvy, A. R.

J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cole, J. B.

Cook, R. L.

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

Cremers, D. A.

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

Daubach, R. O.

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

Druet, S. A. J.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Appl. Opt. 22, 2118 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Opt. Lett. 5, 380 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. C. Eckbreth, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1471.
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. W. Schreiber, in Chemical Applications of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy, A. B. Harvey, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), p. 27.

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1984); in press.

J. F. Verdieck, J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 595.

Eguchi, K.

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, J. Fluids Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

England, W. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. L.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 609.

Ferrario, A.

A. Ferrario, M. Garbi, C. Malvicini, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), paper WD2.

Fujii, S.

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, J. Fluids Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Garbi, M.

A. Ferrario, M. Garbi, C. Malvicini, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), paper WD2.

Gomi, M.

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, J. Fluids Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Goss, L. P.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Goss, Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., R and D Status Report 6603-7 (1982).

Greenhalgh, D. A.

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. J.

R. J. Hall, J. A. Shirley, Appl. Spectrosc. 37, 196 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Hall, Opt. Eng. 22, 322 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Opt. Lett. 5, 380 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Verdieck, J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 595.

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1984); in press.

Hartford, A.

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

Hartley, D. L.

M. Lapp, D. L. Hartley, Combust. Sci. Technol. 13, 199 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, A. B.

J. W. Nibler, W. M. Shaub, J. R. McDonald, A. B. Harvey, in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, Vol. 6, J. R. Durig, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 173.

Hirose, C.

K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, SAE Technical Paper 821036 (1982).

Johnston, S. C.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 609.

Kajiyama, K.

K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, SAE Technical Paper 821036 (1982).

Kataoka, H.

K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, SAE Technical Paper 821036 (1982).

Klick, D.

Knighten, G. V.

J. W. Nibler, G. V. Knighten, in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 253.
[CrossRef]

Lapp, M.

M. Lapp, D. L. Hartley, Combust. Sci. Technol. 13, 199 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lederman, S.

S. Lederman, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 3, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Long, M. B.

M. B. Long, Department of Applied Physics, Yale U., New Haven, Conn.

Loree, T. R.

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

Maeda, S.

K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, SAE Technical Paper 821036 (1982).

Malvicini, C.

A. Ferrario, M. Garbi, C. Malvicini, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), paper WD2.

Marko, K. A.

Mattern, P. L.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 609.

McDonald, J. R.

J. W. Nibler, W. M. Shaub, J. R. McDonald, A. B. Harvey, in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, Vol. 6, J. R. Durig, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 173.

Murphree, D. L.

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

Nibler, J. W.

J. W. Nibler, W. M. Shaub, J. R. McDonald, A. B. Harvey, in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, Vol. 6, J. R. Durig, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 173.

J. W. Nibler, G. V. Knighten, in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 253.
[CrossRef]

Pealat, M.

J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part I, p. 575.

Porter, F. M.

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Prior, Y.

Quigley, G. P.

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

Radziemski, L. J.

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 609.

Rimai, L.

Roh, W. B.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Roquemore, W. M.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sajiki, K.

K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, SAE Technical Paper 821036 (1982).

Schreiber, P. W.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. W. Schreiber, in Chemical Applications of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy, A. B. Harvey, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), p. 27.

Shaub, W. M.

J. W. Nibler, W. M. Shaub, J. R. McDonald, A. B. Harvey, in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, Vol. 6, J. R. Durig, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 173.

Shirley, J. A.

R. J. Hall, J. A. Shirley, Appl. Spectrosc. 37, 196 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Opt. Lett. 5, 380 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. Verdieck, J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 595.

Stenhouse, I. A.

Stickel, R. E.

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

Switzer, G. L.

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Swords, M. D.

Taran, J. P.

J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part I, p. 575.

Taran, J. P. E.

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. J.

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

Verdieck, J. F.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. C. Eckbreth, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1471.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Verdieck, J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 595.

Williams, D. R.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Combust. Flame (3)

R. J. Hall, Combust. Flame 35, 47 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Greenhalgh, F. M. Porter, W. A. England, Combust. Flame 49, 171 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Lapp, D. L. Hartley, Combust. Sci. Technol. 13, 199 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Energy (1)

G. L. Switzer, L. P. Goss, W. M. Roquemore, R. P. Bradley, P. W. Schreiber, W. B. Roh, J. Energy 4, 209 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluids Eng. (1)

S. Fujii, M. Gomi, K. Eguchi, J. Fluids Eng. 105, 128 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. J. Hall, Opt. Eng. 22, 322 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. H. Bechtel, A. R. Chraplyvy, Proc. IEEE 70, 658 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

A. Hartford, D. A. Cremers, T. R. Loree, G. P. Quigley, L. J. Radziemski, D. J. Taylor, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 411, 23 (1983).

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (2)

S. Lederman, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 3, 1 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979); A. C. Eckbreth, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1471.
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. A. J. Druet, J. P. E. Taran, Prog. Quantum Electron. 7, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (14)

J. W. Nibler, G. V. Knighten, in Raman Spectroscopy of Gases and Liquids, A. Weber, Ed. (Springer, Berlin, 1979), p. 253.
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. W. Schreiber, in Chemical Applications of Nonlinear Raman Spectroscopy, A. B. Harvey, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1981), p. 27.

R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, in Laser Applications, Vol. 5, J. F. Ready, R. K. Erf, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1984); in press.

J. F. Verdieck, J. A. Shirley, R. J. Hall, A. C. Eckbreth, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 595.

Amerian Holographic Inc., Acton, Mass. 01720.

L. P. Goss, Systems Research Laboratories, Inc., R and D Status Report 6603-7 (1982).

M. B. Long, Department of Applied Physics, Yale U., New Haven, Conn.

D. R. Crosley, Ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry (American Chemical Society Symposium Series, Washington, D.C., 1980), Vol. 134.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part 1, p. 609.

K. Kajiyama, K. Sajiki, H. Kataoka, S. Maeda, C. Hirose, SAE Technical Paper 821036 (1982).

D. L. Murphree, R. L. Cook, L. E. Bauman, E. J. Beiting, R. E. Stickel, R. O. Daubach, M. F. Ali, AIAA Paper 82-0377 (1982).

J. W. Nibler, W. M. Shaub, J. R. McDonald, A. B. Harvey, in Vibrational Spectra and Structure, Vol. 6, J. R. Durig, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1977), p. 173.

A. Ferrario, M. Garbi, C. Malvicini, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptical Systems (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1983), paper WD2.

J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, Temperature (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982), Vol. 5, Part I, p. 575.

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of N2 CARS spectrum from 300 to 2300 K in 100-K increments for 70% N2 concentration and 2-cm−1 spectral resolution.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the O2 CARS spectrum with O2 concentration at 1500 K and 2-cm−1 resolution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic layout of CARS instrument. Code: FD, frequency doubler; M, mirror; AG, absorbing glass; PD, photodiode; HeNe, helium–neon laser; DC, dye cell; A, aperture BS, beam splitter; λ/2, halfwave plate; D, dichroic; L, lens; F, filter; RC, reference cell; FO, fiber optic; PMT, photomultiplier tube; RTP, rooftop prism; T, trap; and OM, output mirror.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

CARS transmitter interior.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser beam arrangement for USED CARS.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CARS instrument and traversing system in jet engine test stand.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time-averaged N2 CARS spectrum from jet engine exhaust at full augmentation. The dots are the experimental spectrum recorded from the vidicon. The solid line is the best least mean squares fit to the experimental signature at a temperature of 1713 K (2624°F).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time-averaged H2O CARS spectra (left column) in jet engine exhaust at various power levels. The right-hand column displays the best two-parameter theoretical fit (solid line) to the experimental signatures (dots) from which temperature and fractional concentration are determined.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time-averaged CARS measurements of CO at various locations in jet exhaust at full augmentation.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Time-averaged O2 CARS spectra from jet engine exhaust at intermediate power (top) and full augmentation (bottom). The experimental signatures are shown as dots. The theoretical best fit for temperature and fractional concentration is shown as the solid line.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Single-pulse dye laser spectral profile illustrating amplitude random noise.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Various quick-fitting N2 CARS temperature measurement methods.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Temperature dependence of N2 CARS temperature quick-fitters. Code: 1, FW 3/4H; 2, FWHH; 3, FW 1/4H; 4 (warm integral + cold integral)/ground-state peak; 5, peak height ratio; 6, warm integral/cold integral; 7, hot integral/cold integral.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Effect of temperature spread test on tube furnace histograms.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

CARS temperature histogram in augmented jet engine exhaust using average value of integral quick fitters and 200-K spread test.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Time dependence of temperature measurements in augmented jet engine exhaust used to assemble the Fig. 16 histogram.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Hypothesized behavior of multimode single-pulse CARS generation.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Comparison of Several Quick-Fit Methods Without a Spread Test for a 1253-K Tube Furnace Measurement; Results From Averaging the Spectra are Compared to Single-Shot Histogram Analysis

Tables Icon

Table II Comparison of Tube Furnace Histograms Obtained by Several Quick-Fit Methods Without a Spread Test With Those From Analysis of Theoretical Spectra Convoluted With Dye Laser Noise

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