Abstract

Intractivity laser spectroscopy is an analytical technique which offers the possibility of making sensitive measurements of atomic and molecular species in combustion environments. Absorption signals can be as much as a million times greater than those obtained from conventional absorption spectroscopy. In this paper we examine the main experimental and theoretical approaches that have been taken to understand how the technique works. We show that the two principal theories of intracavity spectroscopy can be reconciled and that recent theoretical and experimental advances allow intracavity spectroscopy to give reliable and reproducible results which can be used for quantitative measurements. Possible applications of the the technique as a diagnostic technique for combustion applications are proposed.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).
  2. N. Dutta, R. T. Warner, G. J. Wolga, “Sensitivity Enhancement of a Spin-Flip Raman Laser Absorption Spectrometer Through Use of an Intracavity Absorption Cell,” Opt. Lett. 1, 155 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy with Continuously and Quasicontinuously Operating Laser,” Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21 (1978).
  4. T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, P. E. Toscheck, “Ultrasensitive Response of a cw Dye Laser to Selective Extinction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 802 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, N. C. Peterson, “Enhancement of Absorption Spectra II,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Brunner, H. Paul, “On the Theory of Selective Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Conimun. 12, 252 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. K. Holt, “Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Phys. Rev. A, 11, 625 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. I. Stepanov, A. N. Rubinov, M. V. Belokon, “Selective Intracavity Spectroscopy for Lasers with Homogeneous Spectral Broadening,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 423 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. O. Brink, “An Alternate Model of cw Dye Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Commun. 32, 123 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.
  11. T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Highly Excited Vibrational–Rotational States of Molelcules by the Method of Selective Losses in the Resonator of a Laser,” Opt. Spectrosc. 37, 372 (1974).
  12. T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Ultrahigh-Sensitivity High-Speed Laser Spectroscopy of Radicals and Molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 441 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. deMars, “Spectral Output and Spiking Behavior of Solid-State Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2289 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, “Continuous Wave Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy. II: A Parametric Study,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. V. Reddy, Thesis, U. Wisconsin, Madison (1977).
  17. S. J. Harris, “Power Dependence of Continuous-Wave Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 7, 497 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. T. Pike, “Spatial Hole Burning in cw Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 10, 14 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, V. R. Mironenko, “Quantitative Measurement of Small Absorption Coefficients in Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 15, 99 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Stoeckel, M.-A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, “Quantitative Measurements of Very Weak H2O Absorption Lines by Time Resolved Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2191 (1982); M. Chenevier, M. A. Melieres, F. Stoeckel, “Intracavity Absorption Line Shapes and Quantitative Measurements on O2,” Opt. Commun. 45, 385 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, T. V. Plakhotnik, “Dependence of the Sensitivity of Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy on Generation Parameters,” Opt. Commun. 46, 126 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. R. Mironenko, V. I. Yudson, “Quantum Noise in Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 34, 397 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1978).
  25. S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, “Intracavity Laser Tomography of C2 in an Oxyacetylene Flame,” Opt. Lett. 6, 434 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. J. Thrash, H. Weyssenhoff, J. S. Shirk, “Dye Laser Amplified Absorption Spectroscopy of Flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. M. Baev, H. Schroder, P. E. Toschek, “LiF:F2+ -Center Laser for Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 36, 57 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. M. Brenner, S. Datta, R. N. Zare, “Laser Isotope Separation. Photochemical Scavenging of Chlorine-37 by Bromobenzene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4554 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. P. Hemenway, T. G. Lindeman, J. R. Wiesenfeld, “Measurement of the A3π1μ-X′Σg+ Continuum Absorption in Br2,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3560 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, M. J. Kurylo, “Detection of Free Radicals by an Intracavity Dye Laser Technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. H. Clark, C. B. Moore, J. P. Reilly, “HCO Radical Kinetics: Conjunction of Laser Photolysis and Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 10, 427 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  32. O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).
  33. G. Herzberg, L. Herzberg, “Rotation–Vibration Spectra of Diatomic and Simple Polyatomic Molecules with Long Absorbing Paths,” J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1551 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. K. Ottesen, D. A. Stephenson, “Fourier Transform Infrared Measurements in Sooting Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 95 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  35. G. J. Schere, K. K. Lehmann, W. Klemperer, “High-Resolution Visible Overtone Spectrum of Acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2817 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. F. Blanke, S. E. Vincent, J. Overend, “Infrared Spectroscopy of Surface Species; Instrumental Considerations,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 32, 163 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. J. Cattolica, R. W. Schefer, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, (1982), p. 311.

1983 (2)

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, T. V. Plakhotnik, “Dependence of the Sensitivity of Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy on Generation Parameters,” Opt. Commun. 46, 126 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Schere, K. K. Lehmann, W. Klemperer, “High-Resolution Visible Overtone Spectrum of Acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2817 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

F. Stoeckel, M.-A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, “Quantitative Measurements of Very Weak H2O Absorption Lines by Time Resolved Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2191 (1982); M. Chenevier, M. A. Melieres, F. Stoeckel, “Intracavity Absorption Line Shapes and Quantitative Measurements on O2,” Opt. Commun. 45, 385 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Ottesen, D. A. Stephenson, “Fourier Transform Infrared Measurements in Sooting Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Harris, “Power Dependence of Continuous-Wave Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 7, 497 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (3)

S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, “Intracavity Laser Tomography of C2 in an Oxyacetylene Flame,” Opt. Lett. 6, 434 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Baev, H. Schroder, P. E. Toschek, “LiF:F2+ -Center Laser for Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 36, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, “Continuous Wave Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy. II: A Parametric Study,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Mironenko, V. I. Yudson, “Quantum Noise in Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 34, 397 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. O. Brink, “An Alternate Model of cw Dye Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Commun. 32, 123 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

C. P. Hemenway, T. G. Lindeman, J. R. Wiesenfeld, “Measurement of the A3π1μ-X′Σg+ Continuum Absorption in Br2,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3560 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

J. H. Clark, C. B. Moore, J. P. Reilly, “HCO Radical Kinetics: Conjunction of Laser Photolysis and Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 10, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy with Continuously and Quasicontinuously Operating Laser,” Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21 (1978).

1977 (4)

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

D. M. Brenner, S. Datta, R. N. Zare, “Laser Isotope Separation. Photochemical Scavenging of Chlorine-37 by Bromobenzene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4554 (1977).
[CrossRef]

N. Dutta, R. T. Warner, G. J. Wolga, “Sensitivity Enhancement of a Spin-Flip Raman Laser Absorption Spectrometer Through Use of an Intracavity Absorption Cell,” Opt. Lett. 1, 155 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (2)

J. F. Blanke, S. E. Vincent, J. Overend, “Infrared Spectroscopy of Surface Species; Instrumental Considerations,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 32, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. I. Stepanov, A. N. Rubinov, M. V. Belokon, “Selective Intracavity Spectroscopy for Lasers with Homogeneous Spectral Broadening,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

H. K. Holt, “Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Phys. Rev. A, 11, 625 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, V. R. Mironenko, “Quantitative Measurement of Small Absorption Coefficients in Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 15, 99 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (4)

C. T. Pike, “Spatial Hole Burning in cw Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 10, 14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. Brunner, H. Paul, “On the Theory of Selective Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Conimun. 12, 252 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Highly Excited Vibrational–Rotational States of Molelcules by the Method of Selective Losses in the Resonator of a Laser,” Opt. Spectrosc. 37, 372 (1974).

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Ultrahigh-Sensitivity High-Speed Laser Spectroscopy of Radicals and Molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 441 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, M. J. Kurylo, “Detection of Free Radicals by an Intracavity Dye Laser Technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

R. A. Keller, E. F. Zalewski, N. C. Peterson, “Enhancement of Absorption Spectra II,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 319 (1972).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, P. E. Toscheck, “Ultrasensitive Response of a cw Dye Laser to Selective Extinction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. J. Thrash, H. Weyssenhoff, J. S. Shirk, “Dye Laser Amplified Absorption Spectroscopy of Flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).

1963 (1)

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. deMars, “Spectral Output and Spiking Behavior of Solid-State Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2289 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

G. Herzberg, L. Herzberg, “Rotation–Vibration Spectra of Diatomic and Simple Polyatomic Molecules with Long Absorbing Paths,” J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1551 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, E. N.

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, T. V. Plakhotnik, “Dependence of the Sensitivity of Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy on Generation Parameters,” Opt. Commun. 46, 126 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, V. R. Mironenko, “Quantitative Measurement of Small Absorption Coefficients in Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 15, 99 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, G. H.

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, M. J. Kurylo, “Detection of Free Radicals by an Intracavity Dye Laser Technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Baev, V. M.

V. M. Baev, H. Schroder, P. E. Toschek, “LiF:F2+ -Center Laser for Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 36, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy with Continuously and Quasicontinuously Operating Laser,” Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21 (1978).

Belikova, T. P.

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy with Continuously and Quasicontinuously Operating Laser,” Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21 (1978).

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Highly Excited Vibrational–Rotational States of Molelcules by the Method of Selective Losses in the Resonator of a Laser,” Opt. Spectrosc. 37, 372 (1974).

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Ultrahigh-Sensitivity High-Speed Laser Spectroscopy of Radicals and Molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 441 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Belokon, M. V.

B. I. Stepanov, A. N. Rubinov, M. V. Belokon, “Selective Intracavity Spectroscopy for Lasers with Homogeneous Spectral Broadening,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M. J.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Blanke, J. F.

J. F. Blanke, S. E. Vincent, J. Overend, “Infrared Spectroscopy of Surface Species; Instrumental Considerations,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 32, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bray, R. G.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, D. M.

D. M. Brenner, S. Datta, R. N. Zare, “Laser Isotope Separation. Photochemical Scavenging of Chlorine-37 by Bromobenzene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4554 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Brink, G. O.

G. O. Brink, “An Alternate Model of cw Dye Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Commun. 32, 123 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, W.

W. Brunner, H. Paul, “On the Theory of Selective Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Conimun. 12, 252 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cattolica, R. J.

R. J. Cattolica, R. W. Schefer, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, (1982), p. 311.

Chenevier, M.

F. Stoeckel, M.-A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, “Quantitative Measurements of Very Weak H2O Absorption Lines by Time Resolved Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2191 (1982); M. Chenevier, M. A. Melieres, F. Stoeckel, “Intracavity Absorption Line Shapes and Quantitative Measurements on O2,” Opt. Commun. 45, 385 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cheskis, S. G.

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

Churilov, S. S.

L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).

Clark, J. H.

J. H. Clark, C. B. Moore, J. P. Reilly, “HCO Radical Kinetics: Conjunction of Laser Photolysis and Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 10, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1978).

Datta, S.

D. M. Brenner, S. Datta, R. N. Zare, “Laser Isotope Separation. Photochemical Scavenging of Chlorine-37 by Bromobenzene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4554 (1977).
[CrossRef]

deMars, G.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. deMars, “Spectral Output and Spiking Behavior of Solid-State Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2289 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, N.

Frolov, M. P.

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

Hansch, T. W.

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, P. E. Toscheck, “Ultrasensitive Response of a cw Dye Laser to Selective Extinction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. J.

Hemenway, C. P.

C. P. Hemenway, T. G. Lindeman, J. R. Wiesenfeld, “Measurement of the A3π1μ-X′Σg+ Continuum Absorption in Br2,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3560 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Henke, W.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, L. Herzberg, “Rotation–Vibration Spectra of Diatomic and Simple Polyatomic Molecules with Long Absorbing Paths,” J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1551 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, L.

G. Herzberg, L. Herzberg, “Rotation–Vibration Spectra of Diatomic and Simple Polyatomic Molecules with Long Absorbing Paths,” J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1551 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Holt, H. K.

H. K. Holt, “Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Phys. Rev. A, 11, 625 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kachanov, A. A.

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, T. V. Plakhotnik, “Dependence of the Sensitivity of Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy on Generation Parameters,” Opt. Commun. 46, 126 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R. A.

Klemperer, W.

G. J. Schere, K. K. Lehmann, W. Klemperer, “High-Resolution Visible Overtone Spectrum of Acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2817 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Koloshnikov, V. G.

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, V. R. Mironenko, “Quantitative Measurement of Small Absorption Coefficients in Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 15, 99 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kovalenko, S. A.

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kurylo, M. J.

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, M. J. Kurylo, “Detection of Free Radicals by an Intracavity Dye Laser Technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Laufer, A. H.

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, M. J. Kurylo, “Detection of Free Radicals by an Intracavity Dye Laser Technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, K. K.

G. J. Schere, K. K. Lehmann, W. Klemperer, “High-Resolution Visible Overtone Spectrum of Acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2817 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lindeman, T. G.

C. P. Hemenway, T. G. Lindeman, J. R. Wiesenfeld, “Measurement of the A3π1μ-X′Σg+ Continuum Absorption in Br2,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3560 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. K.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Melieres, M.-A.

F. Stoeckel, M.-A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, “Quantitative Measurements of Very Weak H2O Absorption Lines by Time Resolved Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2191 (1982); M. Chenevier, M. A. Melieres, F. Stoeckel, “Intracavity Absorption Line Shapes and Quantitative Measurements on O2,” Opt. Commun. 45, 385 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mironenko, V. R.

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, T. V. Plakhotnik, “Dependence of the Sensitivity of Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy on Generation Parameters,” Opt. Commun. 46, 126 (1983).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Mironenko, V. I. Yudson, “Quantum Noise in Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 34, 397 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, V. R. Mironenko, “Quantitative Measurement of Small Absorption Coefficients in Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 15, 99 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Moore, C. B.

J. H. Clark, C. B. Moore, J. P. Reilly, “HCO Radical Kinetics: Conjunction of Laser Photolysis and Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 10, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ottesen, D. K.

D. K. Ottesen, D. A. Stephenson, “Fourier Transform Infrared Measurements in Sooting Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Overend, J.

J. F. Blanke, S. E. Vincent, J. Overend, “Infrared Spectroscopy of Surface Species; Instrumental Considerations,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 32, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pakhomycheva, L. A.

L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).

Paul, H.

W. Brunner, H. Paul, “On the Theory of Selective Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Conimun. 12, 252 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, N. C.

Pike, C. T.

C. T. Pike, “Spatial Hole Burning in cw Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 10, 14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Plakhotnik, T. V.

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, T. V. Plakhotnik, “Dependence of the Sensitivity of Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy on Generation Parameters,” Opt. Commun. 46, 126 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K. V.

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Reddy, Thesis, U. Wisconsin, Madison (1977).

Reilly, J. P.

J. H. Clark, C. B. Moore, J. P. Reilly, “HCO Radical Kinetics: Conjunction of Laser Photolysis and Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 10, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1978).

Rubinov, A. N.

B. I. Stepanov, A. N. Rubinov, M. V. Belokon, “Selective Intracavity Spectroscopy for Lasers with Homogeneous Spectral Broadening,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sarkisov, O. M.

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

Schawlow, A. L.

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, P. E. Toscheck, “Ultrasensitive Response of a cw Dye Laser to Selective Extinction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Schefer, R. W.

R. J. Cattolica, R. W. Schefer, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, (1982), p. 311.

Schere, G. J.

G. J. Schere, K. K. Lehmann, W. Klemperer, “High-Resolution Visible Overtone Spectrum of Acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2817 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, H.

V. M. Baev, H. Schroder, P. E. Toschek, “LiF:F2+ -Center Laser for Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 36, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, J. S.

R. J. Thrash, H. Weyssenhoff, J. S. Shirk, “Dye Laser Amplified Absorption Spectroscopy of Flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Statz, H.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. deMars, “Spectral Output and Spiking Behavior of Solid-State Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2289 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, B. I.

B. I. Stepanov, A. N. Rubinov, M. V. Belokon, “Selective Intracavity Spectroscopy for Lasers with Homogeneous Spectral Broadening,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stephenson, D. A.

D. K. Ottesen, D. A. Stephenson, “Fourier Transform Infrared Measurements in Sooting Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stoeckel, F.

F. Stoeckel, M.-A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, “Quantitative Measurements of Very Weak H2O Absorption Lines by Time Resolved Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2191 (1982); M. Chenevier, M. A. Melieres, F. Stoeckel, “Intracavity Absorption Line Shapes and Quantitative Measurements on O2,” Opt. Commun. 45, 385 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Suchkov, A. F.

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy with Continuously and Quasicontinuously Operating Laser,” Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21 (1978).

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Ultrahigh-Sensitivity High-Speed Laser Spectroscopy of Radicals and Molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 441 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Highly Excited Vibrational–Rotational States of Molelcules by the Method of Selective Losses in the Resonator of a Laser,” Opt. Spectrosc. 37, 372 (1974).

L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).

Sviridenkov, E. A.

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy with Continuously and Quasicontinuously Operating Laser,” Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21 (1978).

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Ultrahigh-Sensitivity High-Speed Laser Spectroscopy of Radicals and Molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 441 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Highly Excited Vibrational–Rotational States of Molelcules by the Method of Selective Losses in the Resonator of a Laser,” Opt. Spectrosc. 37, 372 (1974).

L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).

Tang, C. L.

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. deMars, “Spectral Output and Spiking Behavior of Solid-State Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2289 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Thrash, R. J.

R. J. Thrash, H. Weyssenhoff, J. S. Shirk, “Dye Laser Amplified Absorption Spectroscopy of Flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Titova, L. V.

L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).

Toscheck, P. E.

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, P. E. Toscheck, “Ultrasensitive Response of a cw Dye Laser to Selective Extinction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Toschek, P. E.

V. M. Baev, H. Schroder, P. E. Toschek, “LiF:F2+ -Center Laser for Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 36, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Udartsev, A. M.

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

Ushanov, V. Zh.

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

Vincent, S. E.

J. F. Blanke, S. E. Vincent, J. Overend, “Infrared Spectroscopy of Surface Species; Instrumental Considerations,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 32, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Warner, R. T.

Weiner, A. M.

S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, “Intracavity Laser Tomography of C2 in an Oxyacetylene Flame,” Opt. Lett. 6, 434 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, “Continuous Wave Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy. II: A Parametric Study,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weyssenhoff, H.

R. J. Thrash, H. Weyssenhoff, J. S. Shirk, “Dye Laser Amplified Absorption Spectroscopy of Flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. R.

C. P. Hemenway, T. G. Lindeman, J. R. Wiesenfeld, “Measurement of the A3π1μ-X′Σg+ Continuum Absorption in Br2,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3560 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Wolga, G. J.

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

Yudson, V. I.

V. R. Mironenko, V. I. Yudson, “Quantum Noise in Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 34, 397 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E. F.

Zare, R. N.

D. M. Brenner, S. Datta, R. N. Zare, “Laser Isotope Separation. Photochemical Scavenging of Chlorine-37 by Bromobenzene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4554 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. G. Bray, W. Henke, S. K. Liu, K. V. Reddy, M. J. Berry, “Measurement of Highly Forbidden Optical Transition by Intracavity cw Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 47, 213 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (1)

D. K. Ottesen, D. A. Stephenson, “Fourier Transform Infrared Measurements in Sooting Flames,” Combust. Flame 46, 95 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

O. M. Sarkisov, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. M. Udartsev, V. Zh. Ushanov, M. P. Frolov, S. G. Cheskis, “Study of the Heterogeneous Destruction of NH2 by Intraresonator Laser Spectroscopy,” Dok. Akad. Nauk SSSR 233, 341 (1977).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. W. Hansch, A. L. Schawlow, P. E. Toscheck, “Ultrasensitive Response of a cw Dye Laser to Selective Extinction,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 802 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Chem. Kinet. (1)

J. H. Clark, C. B. Moore, J. P. Reilly, “HCO Radical Kinetics: Conjunction of Laser Photolysis and Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy,” Int. J. Chem. Kinet. 10, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

D. M. Brenner, S. Datta, R. N. Zare, “Laser Isotope Separation. Photochemical Scavenging of Chlorine-37 by Bromobenzene,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 99, 4554 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. L. Tang, H. Statz, G. deMars, “Spectral Output and Spiking Behavior of Solid-State Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2289 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

B. I. Stepanov, A. N. Rubinov, M. V. Belokon, “Selective Intracavity Spectroscopy for Lasers with Homogeneous Spectral Broadening,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 24, 423 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (7)

S. J. Harris, A. M. Weiner, “Continuous Wave Intracavity Dye Laser Spectroscopy. II: A Parametric Study,” J. Chem. Phys. 74, 3673 (1981).
[CrossRef]

F. Stoeckel, M.-A. Melieres, M. Chenevier, “Quantitative Measurements of Very Weak H2O Absorption Lines by Time Resolved Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2191 (1982); M. Chenevier, M. A. Melieres, F. Stoeckel, “Intracavity Absorption Line Shapes and Quantitative Measurements on O2,” Opt. Commun. 45, 385 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thrash, H. Weyssenhoff, J. S. Shirk, “Dye Laser Amplified Absorption Spectroscopy of Flames,” J. Chem. Phys. 55, 4659 (1971).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Hemenway, T. G. Lindeman, J. R. Wiesenfeld, “Measurement of the A3π1μ-X′Σg+ Continuum Absorption in Br2,” J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3560 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Atkinson, A. H. Laufer, M. J. Kurylo, “Detection of Free Radicals by an Intracavity Dye Laser Technique,” J. Chem. Phys. 59, 350 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Schere, K. K. Lehmann, W. Klemperer, “High-Resolution Visible Overtone Spectrum of Acetylene,” J. Chem. Phys. 78, 2817 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. Herzberg, L. Herzberg, “Rotation–Vibration Spectra of Diatomic and Simple Polyatomic Molecules with Long Absorbing Paths,” J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1551 (1950).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

L. A. Pakhomycheva, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, L. V. Titova, S. S. Churilov, “Line Structure of Generation Spectra of Lasers with Inhomogeneous Broadening of the Amplification,” JETP Lett. 12, 43 (1970).

Opt. Commun. (6)

V. M. Baev, H. Schroder, P. E. Toschek, “LiF:F2+ -Center Laser for Intracavity Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 36, 57 (1981).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Mironenko, V. I. Yudson, “Quantum Noise in Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 34, 397 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, A. A. Kachanov, V. R. Mironenko, T. V. Plakhotnik, “Dependence of the Sensitivity of Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy on Generation Parameters,” Opt. Commun. 46, 126 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Pike, “Spatial Hole Burning in cw Dye Lasers,” Opt. Commun. 10, 14 (1974).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Antonov, V. G. Koloshnikov, V. R. Mironenko, “Quantitative Measurement of Small Absorption Coefficients in Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 15, 99 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. O. Brink, “An Alternate Model of cw Dye Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Commun. 32, 123 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Conimun. (1)

W. Brunner, H. Paul, “On the Theory of Selective Intracavity Absorption,” Opt. Conimun. 12, 252 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Highly Excited Vibrational–Rotational States of Molelcules by the Method of Selective Losses in the Resonator of a Laser,” Opt. Spectrosc. 37, 372 (1974).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. K. Holt, “Laser Intracavity Absorption,” Phys. Rev. A, 11, 625 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, S. A. Kovalenko, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Transient Processes Manifested in the Emission Spectra of cw Wide-Band Dye Lasers Used for Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 517 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

V. M. Baev, T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy with Continuously and Quasicontinuously Operating Laser,” Sov. Phys. JETP 47, 21 (1978).

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

T. P. Belikova, E. A. Sviridenkov, A. F. Suchkov, “Ultrahigh-Sensitivity High-Speed Laser Spectroscopy of Radicals and Molecules,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 17, 441 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part A (1)

J. F. Blanke, S. E. Vincent, J. Overend, “Infrared Spectroscopy of Surface Species; Instrumental Considerations,” Spectrochim. Acta Part A 32, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

R. J. Cattolica, R. W. Schefer, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion (The Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, (1982), p. 311.

K. V. Reddy, Thesis, U. Wisconsin, Madison (1977).

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1976), Chap. 6.

J. P. Reilly, J. H. Clark, in Advances in Laser Chemistry, A. H. Zewail, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1978).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Intracavity spectrum of transitions in atomic and molecular oxygen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dye laser output power I as a function of Ar laser pump power relative to threshold (P/PTh) or gain relative to loss (g/L): ● total round-trip optical loss ≃ 7%; ■ loss ≃ 12.6%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enhancement factors vs (g/L) for water vapor overtone spectra. The dots show experimental results, while the solid line gives the prediction of the theory of Hansch et al.4 The theory reproduces the experimental power dependence, but the magnitude of the theoretical predictions was scaled substantially to force agreement with experiment at high pumping powers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the standing wave pattern of two successive modes in a laser cavity. It can be seen that just these two modes would almost uniformly saturate the gain medium if it were near the center of the cavity. Several more modes are required for saturation if the gain medium is near the end mirrors.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated laser spectra with spatial inhomogeneity included for laser generation times of (a) 100, (b) 200, and (c) 300 μsec. The intracavity absorbance (and hence the enhancement factor) increases with time and never reaches a meaningful steady state.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Upper trace: Fourier transform (noise spectrum) of a single longitudinal mode of a broadband cw dye laser. The horizontal scale is 20 kHz/div, the resolution is 3 kHz, the vertical scale is linear, and the left edge of the trace corresponds to the zero of frequency. The bandwidth of the photomultiplier detector was measured to be 200 MHz. Lower trace: signal with laser off.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic representation of a proposed intracavity spectrometer for adsorbed species. Nd, F-center, dye, and external cavity diode lasers might be appropriate for such experiments.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = k ( g / L - 1 ) ,
k = ( N h ν V / t 2 ) [ T / ( T + L 1 ) ] ,
N = 8 π n 2 t 1 γ / g ( ν ) λ 2 ,
d I / I = ( g / L ) / ( g - L ) d L .
ξ = 2 M ( g / L ) / ( g - L ) ,
ξ = c t / X ,
d m d t = - κ m + B m N *             d N * d t = R - B m N * - γ N * ,
d m j d t = - κ j m j + B m j N *             d N * d t = R - j B m j N * - γ N * ,
m j m j ( z ) = m j 0 cos 2 α j z , N * N * ( z ) , d m j 0 d t = - κ j m j 0 + B 0 l m j 0 cos 2 ( α z ) N * ( z ) d z , d N * ( z ) d t = R - j B m j 0 cos 2 ( α z ) N ( z ) - γ N ( z ) ,

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