Abstract

A compilation of the optical constants of ice Ih is made for temperatures within 60 K of the melting point. The imaginary part mim of the complex index of refraction m is obtained from measurements of spectral absorption coefficient; the real part mre is computed to be consistent with mim by use of known dispersion relations. The compilation of mim requires subjective interpolation in the near-ultraviolet and microwave, a temperature correction in the far-infrared, and a choice between two conflicting sources in the near-infrared. New measurements of the spectral absorption coefficient of pure ice are needed, at temperatures near the melting point, for 185–400-nm, 1.4–2.8-μm, 3.5–4.3-μm, 33–600-μm, and 1–100-mm wavelengths.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Evans, J. Glaciol. 5, 773 (1965).
  3. P. S. Ray, Appl. Opt. 11, 1836 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974).
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    [CrossRef]
  6. E. Whalley, J. Phys. Chem. 87, 4174 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, J. Nakahara, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 2643 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Mishima, D. D. Klug, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6399 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. P. Johari, Contemp. Phys. 22, 613 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. W. Schaaf, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 726 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbé, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7447 (1981).
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  13. J. D. Neufeld, G. Andermann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1156 (1972).
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  14. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, Appl. Opt. 12, 555 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. E. Merwin, “Refractivity of Birefringent Crystals,” in International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1930), Vol. 7, pp. 16–33.
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    [CrossRef]
  17. G. R. Jiracek, “Radio Sounding of Antarctic Ice,” in Research Report 67-1, (Geophysicaland Polar Research Center, U. Wisconsin, 1967).
  18. J. B. Hasted, Aqueous Dielectrics (Chapman & Hall, London, 1973).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Onaka, T. Takahashi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 548 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Otto, M. J. Lynch, Aust. J. Phys. 23, 609 (1970).
  22. K. Dressler, O. Schnepp, J. Chem. Phys. 33, 270 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. V. Browell, R. C. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 919 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  24. T. Shibaguchi, H. Onuki, R. Onaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 152 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. P. Minton, J. Phys. Chem. 75, 1162 (1971).
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  26. L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Sauberer, Wetter Leben 2, 193 (1950).
  28. T. C. Grenfell, J. Glaciol. 27, 476 (1981).
  29. W. Luck, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 186 (1963).
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    [CrossRef]
  32. N. Ockman, “The Infrared-Spectra and Raman-Spectra of Single Crystals of Ordinary Ice,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1957).
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    [CrossRef]
  34. U. Fink, H. P. Larson, Icarus 24, 411 (1975).
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  35. N. Ockman, Adv. Phys. 7, 199 (1958).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Léger, S. Gauthier, D. Défourneau, D. Rouan, Astron. Astrophys. 117, 164 (1983).
  40. E. Whalley, H. J. Labbé, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3120 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  41. R. Zimmermann, G. C. Pimentel, Advances in Molecular Spectroscopy, (Macmillan, New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 726–737.
  42. J. Lamb, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 42A, 238 (1946).
  43. J. Lamb, A. Turney, Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 62, 272 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  44. W. A. Cumming, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 768 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  45. J. W. Perry, A. W. Straiton, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5180 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  46. S. R. Gough, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4251 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  47. J. W. Perry, A. W. Straiton, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 731 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  48. M. R. Vant, R. B. Gray, R. O. Ramseier, V. Makios, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4712 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  49. R. H. Ragle, R. G. Blair, L. E. Persson, J. Glaciol. 5, 39 (1964).
  50. R. S. Vickers, “Microwave Properties of Ice from the Great Lakes,” NASA Contract. Rep. 135222 (1977).
  51. A. von Hippel, Tables of Dielectric Materials (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1945).
  52. T. Yoshino, Antarct. Rec. 11, 228 (1961).
  53. G. P. Johari, P. A. Charette, J. Glaciol. 14, 293 (1975).
  54. G. P. Johari, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 3998 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  55. P. M. Champion, A. J. Sievers, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 1569 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  56. H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  57. R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1651 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  58. R. Z. Bachrach, F. C. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 1, 818 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  59. E. Gilberg, M. J. Hanus, B. Foltz, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5093 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1983

O. Mishima, D. D. Klug, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6399 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Whalley, J. Phys. Chem. 87, 4174 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Léger, S. Gauthier, D. Défourneau, D. Rouan, Astron. Astrophys. 117, 164 (1983).

1982

S. Tsujimoto, A. Konishi, T. Kunitomo, Cryogenics 22, 603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Gilberg, M. J. Hanus, B. Foltz, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5093 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

R. N. Clark, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3087 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, J. Glaciol. 27, 476 (1981).

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, J. Nakahara, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 2643 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7447 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Johari, Contemp. Phys. 22, 613 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Champion, A. J. Sievers, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 1569 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

M. S. Bergren, D. Schuh, M. G. Sceats, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 3477 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. Shibaguchi, H. Onuki, R. Onaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. P. Johari, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 3998 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. P. Johari, P. A. Charette, J. Glaciol. 14, 293 (1975).

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, R. C. Anderson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 919 (1975).
[CrossRef]

U. Fink, H. P. Larson, Icarus 24, 411 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

M. R. Vant, R. B. Gray, R. O. Ramseier, V. Makios, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4712 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

S. R. Gough, Can. J. Chem. 50, 3046 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Neufeld, G. Andermann, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1156 (1972).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ray, Appl. Opt. 11, 1836 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Gough, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4251 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, A. W. Straiton, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 731 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. K. Ahrenkiel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1651 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Daniels, Opt. Commun. 3, 240 (1971).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Minton, J. Phys. Chem. 75, 1162 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. Otto, M. J. Lynch, Aust. J. Phys. 23, 609 (1970).

R. Z. Bachrach, F. C. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 1, 818 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. Whalley, H. J. Labbé, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3120 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbé, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. Onaka, T. Takahashi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 548 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967

J. E. Bertie, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1271 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

S. Evans, J. Glaciol. 5, 773 (1965).

1964

R. H. Ragle, R. G. Blair, L. E. Persson, J. Glaciol. 5, 39 (1964).

1963

W. Luck, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 186 (1963).

1961

T. Yoshino, Antarct. Rec. 11, 228 (1961).

1960

K. Dressler, O. Schnepp, J. Chem. Phys. 33, 270 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1958

D. F. Hornig, H. F. White, F. P. Reding, Spectrochim. Acta 12, 338 (1958).
[CrossRef]

N. Ockman, Adv. Phys. 7, 199 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1952

W. A. Cumming, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 768 (1952).
[CrossRef]

1950

F. Sauberer, Wetter Leben 2, 193 (1950).

1949

J. Lamb, A. Turney, Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 62, 272 (1949).
[CrossRef]

1946

J. Lamb, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 42A, 238 (1946).

Ahrenkiel, R. K.

Andermann, G.

Anderson, R. C.

Arakawa, E. T.

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bachrach, R. Z.

R. Z. Bachrach, F. C. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 1, 818 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Bergren, M. S.

M. S. Bergren, D. Schuh, M. G. Sceats, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 3477 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bertie, J. E.

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbé, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bertie, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1271 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Birkhoff, R. D.

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Blair, R. G.

R. H. Ragle, R. G. Blair, L. E. Persson, J. Glaciol. 5, 39 (1964).

Browell, E. V.

Brown, F. C.

R. Z. Bachrach, F. C. Brown, Phys. Rev. B 1, 818 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Champion, P. M.

P. M. Champion, A. J. Sievers, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 1569 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Charette, P. A.

G. P. Johari, P. A. Charette, J. Glaciol. 14, 293 (1975).

Clark, R. N.

R. N. Clark, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 3087 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, W. A.

W. A. Cumming, J. Appl. Phys. 23, 768 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Daniels, J.

J. Daniels, Opt. Commun. 3, 240 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Défourneau, D.

A. Léger, S. Gauthier, D. Défourneau, D. Rouan, Astron. Astrophys. 117, 164 (1983).

Downing, H. D.

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dressler, K.

K. Dressler, O. Schnepp, J. Chem. Phys. 33, 270 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Evans, S.

S. Evans, J. Glaciol. 5, 773 (1965).

Fink, U.

U. Fink, H. P. Larson, Icarus 24, 411 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Foltz, B.

E. Gilberg, M. J. Hanus, B. Foltz, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5093 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, S.

A. Léger, S. Gauthier, D. Défourneau, D. Rouan, Astron. Astrophys. 117, 164 (1983).

Gilberg, E.

E. Gilberg, M. J. Hanus, B. Foltz, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5093 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gough, S. R.

S. R. Gough, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4251 (1972).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Gough, Can. J. Chem. 50, 3046 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gray, R. B.

M. R. Vant, R. B. Gray, R. O. Ramseier, V. Makios, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4712 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Grenfell, T. C.

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7447 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, J. Glaciol. 27, 476 (1981).

Hale, G. M.

Hanus, M. J.

E. Gilberg, M. J. Hanus, B. Foltz, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5093 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hasted, J. B.

J. B. Hasted, Aqueous Dielectrics (Chapman & Hall, London, 1973).

Hobbs, P. V.

P. V. Hobbs, Ice Physics (Clarendon, Oxford, 1974).

Hornig, D. F.

D. F. Hornig, H. F. White, F. P. Reding, Spectrochim. Acta 12, 338 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Jiracek, G. R.

G. R. Jiracek, “Radio Sounding of Antarctic Ice,” in Research Report 67-1, (Geophysicaland Polar Research Center, U. Wisconsin, 1967).

Johari, G. P.

G. P. Johari, Contemp. Phys. 22, 613 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Johari, J. Chem. Phys. 64, 3998 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Johari, P. A. Charette, J. Glaciol. 14, 293 (1975).

Klug, D. D.

O. Mishima, D. D. Klug, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6399 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, J. Nakahara, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 2643 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Konishi, A.

S. Tsujimoto, A. Konishi, T. Kunitomo, Cryogenics 22, 603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kunitomo, T.

S. Tsujimoto, A. Konishi, T. Kunitomo, Cryogenics 22, 603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Labbé, H. J.

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbé, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. Whalley, H. J. Labbé, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3120 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Lamb, J.

J. Lamb, A. Turney, Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 62, 272 (1949).
[CrossRef]

J. Lamb, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 42A, 238 (1946).

Larson, H. P.

U. Fink, H. P. Larson, Icarus 24, 411 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Léger, A.

A. Léger, S. Gauthier, D. Défourneau, D. Rouan, Astron. Astrophys. 117, 164 (1983).

Luck, W.

W. Luck, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 67, 186 (1963).

Lynch, M. J.

A. Otto, M. J. Lynch, Aust. J. Phys. 23, 609 (1970).

Makios, V.

M. R. Vant, R. B. Gray, R. O. Ramseier, V. Makios, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4712 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Merwin, H. E.

H. E. Merwin, “Refractivity of Birefringent Crystals,” in International Critical Tables (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1930), Vol. 7, pp. 16–33.

Minton, A. P.

A. P. Minton, J. Phys. Chem. 75, 1162 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Mishima, O.

O. Mishima, D. D. Klug, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6399 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, J.

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, J. Nakahara, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 2643 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, J. D.

Ockman, N.

N. Ockman, Adv. Phys. 7, 199 (1958).
[CrossRef]

N. Ockman, “The Infrared-Spectra and Raman-Spectra of Single Crystals of Ordinary Ice,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Michigan, Ann Arbor (1957).

Onaka, R.

T. Shibaguchi, H. Onuki, R. Onaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Onaka, T. Takahashi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 548 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Onuki, H.

T. Shibaguchi, H. Onuki, R. Onaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, M. J. Lynch, Aust. J. Phys. 23, 609 (1970).

Painter, L. R.

L. R. Painter, R. D. Birkhoff, E. T. Arakawa, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 243 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Perovich, D. K.

T. C. Grenfell, D. K. Perovich, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 7447 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, A. W. Straiton, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5180 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, A. W. Straiton, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 731 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Persson, L. E.

R. H. Ragle, R. G. Blair, L. E. Persson, J. Glaciol. 5, 39 (1964).

Pimentel, G. C.

R. Zimmermann, G. C. Pimentel, Advances in Molecular Spectroscopy, (Macmillan, New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 726–737.

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, Icarus 8, 324 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Ragle, R. H.

R. H. Ragle, R. G. Blair, L. E. Persson, J. Glaciol. 5, 39 (1964).

Ramseier, R. O.

M. R. Vant, R. B. Gray, R. O. Ramseier, V. Makios, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4712 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ray, P. S.

Reding, F. P.

D. F. Hornig, H. F. White, F. P. Reding, Spectrochim. Acta 12, 338 (1958).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Reding, “The Vibrational Spectrum and Structure of Several Molecular Crystals at Low Temperature,” Ph.D. Thesis, Brown U., Providence, R.I. (1951).

Rice, S. A.

M. S. Bergren, D. Schuh, M. G. Sceats, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 3477 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Rouan, D.

A. Léger, S. Gauthier, D. Défourneau, D. Rouan, Astron. Astrophys. 117, 164 (1983).

Sauberer, F.

F. Sauberer, Wetter Leben 2, 193 (1950).

Sceats, M. G.

M. S. Bergren, D. Schuh, M. G. Sceats, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 3477 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schaaf, J. W.

Schnepp, O.

K. Dressler, O. Schnepp, J. Chem. Phys. 33, 270 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Schuh, D.

M. S. Bergren, D. Schuh, M. G. Sceats, S. A. Rice, J. Chem. Phys. 69, 3477 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Seki, M.

M. Seki, K. Kobayashi, J. Nakahara, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50, 2643 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shibaguchi, T.

T. Shibaguchi, H. Onuki, R. Onaka, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 42, 152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sievers, A. J.

P. M. Champion, A. J. Sievers, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 1569 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Straiton, A. W.

J. W. Perry, A. W. Straiton, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 5180 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, A. W. Straiton, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 731 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, T.

R. Onaka, T. Takahashi, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 24, 548 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Tsujimoto, S.

S. Tsujimoto, A. Konishi, T. Kunitomo, Cryogenics 22, 603 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Turney, A.

J. Lamb, A. Turney, Proc. Phys. Soc. London Sect. B 62, 272 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Vant, M. R.

M. R. Vant, R. B. Gray, R. O. Ramseier, V. Makios, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4712 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, R. S.

R. S. Vickers, “Microwave Properties of Ice from the Great Lakes,” NASA Contract. Rep. 135222 (1977).

von Hippel, A.

A. von Hippel, Tables of Dielectric Materials (MIT Press, Cambridge, 1945).

Warren, S. G.

W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Whalley, E.

O. Mishima, D. D. Klug, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6399 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. Whalley, J. Phys. Chem. 87, 4174 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bertie, H. J. Labbé, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 4501 (1969).
[CrossRef]

E. Whalley, H. J. Labbé, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3120 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bertie, E. Whalley, J. Chem. Phys. 46, 1271 (1967).
[CrossRef]

White, H. F.

D. F. Hornig, H. F. White, F. P. Reding, Spectrochim. Acta 12, 338 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D.

H. D. Downing, D. Williams, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 1656 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Schaaf, D. Williams, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 726 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W. J.

W. J. Wiscombe, S. G. Warren, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2712 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, T.

T. Yoshino, Antarct. Rec. 11, 228 (1961).

Zimmermann, R.

R. Zimmermann, G. C. Pimentel, Advances in Molecular Spectroscopy, (Macmillan, New York, 1962), Vol. 2, pp. 726–737.

Adv. Phys.

N. Ockman, Adv. Phys. 7, 199 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Antarct. Rec.

T. Yoshino, Antarct. Rec. 11, 228 (1961).

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Imaginary refractive index of ice in the ultraviolet. The measurements of Seki et al.7 are the ones used in our compilation. They are for a hexagonal single crystal at 80 K, both polarizations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Imaginary refractive index of ice and water in the ultraviolet. Our compilation uses Seki et al.7 to point A, and Minton25 from point B to point C, joining point A to point B by a straight line. The straight line coincides with the 253 K values of Shibaguchi et al.24 The dashed line extending from point C to longer wavelengths is our chosen interpolation where no data are available.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Imaginary refractive index of ice and water in the near-ultraviolet. Our compilation uses the dashed line to interpolate between Minton25 at 185-nm and Grenfell and Perovich12 at 400-nm wavelength.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Imaginary refractive index of ice in the near-infrared. Our compilation uses Ockman’s32 0.1-mm sample for 1.45–1.61 μm and 1.89–2.11 μm, Reding’s30 values (frequency shifted as described in the text) for 1.61–1.89 μm and 2.11–2.62 μm. Straight lines are used to join from measurements of Grenfell and Perovich12 at 1.4 μm to those of Ockman at 1.45 μm, and from those of Reding at 2.62 μm to those of Schaaf and Williams10 at 2.78 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solid lines, transmission measurements for three ice films of unknown thickness, made at the two temperatures 100 K and 168 K (from Fig. 2 of Bertie and Whalley38). Dashed lines, our subjective guess of the spectrum at 266 K, using the solid lines as a guide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Imaginary refractive index of ice in the transition from the strongly absorbing far-infrared region to the weakly absorbing microwave region. Our compilation for T = −60°C joins point A to point B and follows the 200 K measurements of Whalley and Labbé40 to point C.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Initial temperature correction which was applied to the 100 K data of Bertie et al.,11 to obtain values of m im for 266 K. It is derived from the 266 K and 100 K curves of Fig. 5. This temperature correction was later refined during the Kramers-Kronig analysis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Imaginary refractive index of ice near λ = 33 μm. This is where Schaaf and Williams’s10 data must be joined to the (temperature-corrected) data of Bertie et al.11

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Imaginary refractive index of ice in the far-infrared. Solid line, data for 100 K from Bertie et al.11 Dashed line, values adjusted to −7°C by the function shown in Fig. 7. Dotted line, refined adjustment to −7°C as described in Sec. VIII of the text.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Imaginary index of refraction of ice in the microwave and radiowave regions, according to various investigators. For λ > 2 mm, measurements were made only at the points marked by symbols; they are connected here by lines only for display purposes. An error bar shows the uncertainty quoted by Perry and Straiton.45

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Compilation of real (a)–(c) and imaginary (d)–(f) parts of the refractive index of ice Ih at T = −7°C for λ < 167 μm and at four temperatures for λ > 167 μm. Data sources and uncertainties are discussed in the text. These graphs are tabulated in Tables I and II. The dashed line in (a) shows the results of Seki et al.7 which differ from our compilation as discussed in Sec. IX of the text. The dashed line in (b) similarly shows the results of Schaaf and Williams.10 In (f) the curves are a subjective interpolation between the data points shown.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Real index of refraction at microwave frequencies. The compilation is based on the Kramers-Kronig analysis at T = −7°C. The compilation for other temperatures is forced to pass through the values corresponding to the real part of the permittivity, ɛ′, measured by Gough,16 and to parallel the behavior of the −7° compilation at longer wavelengths, resulting in a lack of agreement with values of Johari and Charette. These curves are the same as those in Fig. 11(c) displayed here on an expanded scale.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Real (m re ) and imaginary (m im ) parts of the complex index of refraction of ice Ih at −7°C, from 45-nm to 167-μm wavelength (λ). Data sources are discussed in the text. These values are graphed in Fig. 11. Wavelengths were chosen for the tables in order adequately to resolve the variations in both real and imaginary index. For intermediate wavelengths not given in the table one should interpolate m re linearly in logλ and log im linearly in logλ. Table I is on the next three pages.

Tables Icon

Table II Real (m re ) and imaginary (m im ) parts of the complex index of refraction of ice Ih, from 167-μm to 8.6-m wavelength (λ), for four temperatures (T). These values are graphed in Figs. 11(c) and (f). For intermediate wavelengths not given in the table, one should interpolate m re linearly in logλ, log im linearly in logλ, m re linearly in T, and logm im linearly in T. Table II is on the next page.

Equations (6)

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m r e ( λ 0 ) = 1 + 2 λ 0 2 π P 0 m i m ( λ ) d λ λ ( λ 0 2 - λ 2 ) ,
m r e ( ν 1 ) - m r e ( ν 2 ) = 1 2 π 2 ν 1 ν 2 k abs ( ν ) ν 2 d ν ,
ɛ = 3.093 + 0.72 × 10 - 4 T + 0.11 × 10 - 5 T 2 .
m r e ( ν ) = 1 + 2 π P 0 ν 2 m i m ( ν ) - ν ν m i m ( ν ) ν 2 - ν 2 d ln ν .
m r e ( λ 0 ) = m r e ( λ 1 ) + 2 ( λ 1 2 - λ 0 2 ) π P 0 λ 2 m i m ( λ ) ( λ 0 2 - λ 2 ) ( λ 1 2 - λ 2 ) d ln λ .
2 π P ν - s ν + t ν ( a + b ν ) - ν m i m ( ν ) ( ν 2 - ν 2 ) d ν = b ( t + s ) + 1 2 [ a + m i m ( ν ) - b ν ] ln ( 2 ν + t 2 ν - s ) .

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