Abstract

Optically transparent dielectric films, when prepared by thermal evaporation or sputtering, have had limited use for many applications due to their permeability and lack of stability. We report on protective dielectric films produced by ion-beam-assisted deposition which demonstrate significant improvements over films produced by conventional deposition techniques. This result can be explained in terms of the increased packing density of ion-assisted films over the porous columnar microstructure usually associated with evaporated films. In addition, ion bombardment of the metal films produced the most stable structures and also substantially improved the adhesion of the films. The endurance under chemical attack of these films was found to be limited by the surface finish of the substrates.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Hass, J. B. Heaney, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, J. J. Triolo, Appl. Opt. 14, 2639 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. N. Sickafus, J. Tabock, J. L. Bomback, Thin Solid Films 78, 49 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, Appl. Opt. 15, 2992 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Laugier, Thin Solid Films 81, 61 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. D. Reader, H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1344 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Campbell, in Handbook of Thin Films, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 12, p. 6.

1983 (1)

1981 (2)

M. Laugier, Thin Solid Films 81, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Sickafus, J. Tabock, J. L. Bomback, Thin Solid Films 78, 49 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, H. K. Pulker, Appl. Opt. 15, 2992 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (2)

Bomback, J. L.

E. N. Sickafus, J. Tabock, J. L. Bomback, Thin Solid Films 78, 49 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, D. S.

D. S. Campbell, in Handbook of Thin Films, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 12, p. 6.

Guenther, K. H.

Hass, G.

Heaney, J. B.

Herzig, H.

Kaufman, H. R.

P. D. Reader, H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Laugier, M.

M. Laugier, Thin Solid Films 81, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

Netterfield, R. P.

Ogura, S.

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Osantowski, J. F.

Pacey, C. G.

Pulker, H. K.

Reader, P. D.

P. D. Reader, H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Sickafus, E. N.

E. N. Sickafus, J. Tabock, J. L. Bomback, Thin Solid Films 78, 49 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tabock, J.

E. N. Sickafus, J. Tabock, J. L. Bomback, Thin Solid Films 78, 49 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Triolo, J. J.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

P. D. Reader, H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 12, 1344 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (3)

E. N. Sickafus, J. Tabock, J. L. Bomback, Thin Solid Films 78, 49 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Laugier, Thin Solid Films 81, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. S. Campbell, in Handbook of Thin Films, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Eds. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970), Chap. 12, p. 6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic layout of deposition system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of test apparatus.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of aluminum-protected films during immersion in 0.2-M NaOH. Refer to Table I for sample preparation key.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of silver-protected films during immersion in 1-M HNO3. Refer to Table II for sample preparation key.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission photomicrograph of the substrate surface of sample G, Fig. 3, after 7-h immersion in NaOH. The randomly oriented lines are etched decorations of residual substrate polishing marks and measure 35 μm wide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Representation of the failure mechanism for samples F and G, Fig. 3, and F, Fig. 4: A, substrate with typical surface defects; B, metal film; C, transparent protective film; D, fractures in C resulting from intrinsic stress E; F and G, microscopically observed decoration of substrate surface defects following prolonged immersion in solvent.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Preparation Conditions for Overcoated Aluminum Samples AG Plotted in Fig. 3

Tables Icon

Table II Preparation Conditions for Overcoated Silver Samples AF Plotted in Fig. 4

Tables Icon

Table III Vacuum Deposition Conditions

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