Abstract

An all-fiber ellipsometer is constructed which uses a polarization-maintaining single-mode fiber as the polarization modulator. It is demonstrated that the all-fiber ellipsometer can be used to determine the optical constants of materials and as a surface state sensor.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  2. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–124.
  3. D. M. Kolb, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 599 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1972 (1)

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bashara, N. N.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Kolb, D. M.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (2)

R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–124.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

All-fiber ellipsometer: P, polarizer; MO, microscope objective; PMF, polarization-maintaining fiber; L, Selfoc lens; PM, photomultiplier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Change in output light intensity I of all-fiber ellipsometer when the temperature of the polarization-maintaining fiber is changed: θ represents angle of incidence. Time scale: 2–10 sec/div. (a) for glass (b) for aluminum.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization ratio P measured as a function of angle of incidence θ.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Constant n (refractive index) and k (extinction coefficient) curves calculated as a function of the angle of incidence θ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization ratio P measured for different samples (θ = 60°).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization ratio P measured for different states of a copper plate (θ = 60°).

Equations (9)

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Δ f = 2 π l / l p ,
E = ( A / 2 ) [ 1 - exp ( i Δ f ) ] , E = ( A / 2 ) [ 1 + exp ( i Δ f ) ] ,
R = r E 2 + r E 2 ,
R = ( A 2 / 2 ) [ ( r 2 + r 2 ) + cos Δ f ( r 2 - r 2 ) ] .
r = tan ( θ - ϕ ) / tan ( θ + ϕ ) , r = - sin ( θ - ϕ ) / sin ( θ + ϕ ) ,
sin θ = N sin ϕ ,
N = n - i k ,
R min = R = A 2 r 2 when Δ f = ( 2 m + 1 ) π , R max = R = A 2 r 2 when Δ f = 2 m π ,
P = I min I max = R min R max = | r r | 2 = | cos ( θ + ϕ ) cos ( θ - ϕ ) | 2 ,

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