Abstract

Critical-angle scattering of laser light from bubbles was photographed, and angular structures in the far-zone intensity are compared with models. The radii of the freely rising bubbles were in the 26.4–814-μm range. Deviation from sphericity for the rising bubbles is considered. Diffraction effects make simple geometric optics inadequate near the critical angle. Coarse-structure intensity oscillations show agreement with a physical-optics approximation and with Mie theory. Measurements agree with derived expressions for the angular spacings of fine structure and contrast modulations. Uses of these structures in different bubble-sizing methods are discussed. The locations of scattered-wave virtual sources are modeled.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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1983

1982

P. L. Marston, D. S. Langley, D. L. Kingsbury, Appl. Sci. Res. 38, 373 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Ravey, P. Mazeron, J. Opt. Paris 13, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

W. W. Martin, A. H. Abdelmessih, J. J. Liska, F. Durst, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 7, 439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Langley, P. L. Marston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 913 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, D. L. Kingsbury, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1488 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Kingsbury, P. L. Marston, Appl. Opt. 20, 2348 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Marston, D. L. Kingsbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 192 (1981); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 917 (E) (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Kingsbury, P. L. Marston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 358 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

1979

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761 (1979); F. Avellan, F. Resch, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 9, 649 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1205 (1979); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 353 (E) (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975

1974

G. B. Wallis, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 1, 491 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971

1964

1956

W. L. Haberman, R. K. Morton, Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 121, 227 (1956).

1955

1954

W. Siemes, Chem. Ing. Tech. 26, 614 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1908

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

1888

C. Pulfrich, Ann. Phys. Chem. Leipzig 33, 209 (1888).

Abdelmessih, A. H.

W. W. Martin, A. H. Abdelmessih, J. J. Liska, F. Durst, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 7, 439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Andreasson, S. D. H.

Brim, B. L.

Clift, R.

R. Clift, J. R. Grace, M. E. Weber, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 7.

Cooke, R. C.

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761 (1979); F. Avellan, F. Resch, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 9, 649 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Davis, G. E.

Durst, F.

W. W. Martin, A. H. Abdelmessih, J. J. Liska, F. Durst, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 7, 439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Farnell, G. C.

G. C. Farnell, in The Theory of the Photographic Process, C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, Eds. (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 6, p. 72.

Grace, J. R.

R. Clift, J. R. Grace, M. E. Weber, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 7.

Gustafsson, S. E.

Haberman, W. L.

W. L. Haberman, R. K. Morton, Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 121, 227 (1956).

Halling, N. O.

Hartland, S.

S. Hartland, R. Hartley, Axisymmetric Fluid–Liquid Interfaces (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

Hartley, R.

S. Hartland, R. Hartley, Axisymmetric Fluid–Liquid Interfaces (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

Johnson, B. D.

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761 (1979); F. Avellan, F. Resch, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 9, 649 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. L.

Kingsbury, D. L.

Langley, D. S.

P. L. Marston, D. S. Langley, D. L. Kingsbury, Appl. Sci. Res. 38, 373 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Langley, P. L. Marston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 913 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, D. S. Langley, in Near Zero: New Frontiers in Physics, B. S. Deaver, C. W. F. Everitt, Eds. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1984).

Liska, J. J.

W. W. Martin, A. H. Abdelmessih, J. J. Liska, F. Durst, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 7, 439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Love, S. P.

Marston, P. L.

P. L. Marston, J. L. Johnson, S. P. Love, B. L. Brim, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 1658 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, D. S. Langley, D. L. Kingsbury, Appl. Sci. Res. 38, 373 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, D. L. Kingsbury, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 192 (1981); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 917 (E) (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Kingsbury, P. L. Marston, Appl. Opt. 20, 2348 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Langley, P. L. Marston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 913 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, D. L. Kingsbury, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1488 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Kingsbury, P. L. Marston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 358 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1205 (1979); J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 353 (E) (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Marston, D. S. Langley, in Near Zero: New Frontiers in Physics, B. S. Deaver, C. W. F. Everitt, Eds. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1984).

Martin, W. W.

W. W. Martin, A. H. Abdelmessih, J. J. Liska, F. Durst, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 7, 439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mazeron, P.

J.-C. Ravey, P. Mazeron, J. Opt. Paris 13, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Morton, R. K.

W. L. Haberman, R. K. Morton, Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 121, 227 (1956).

Murty, M. V. R. K.

Pogorzelski, R. J.

Pulfrich, C.

C. Pulfrich, Ann. Phys. Chem. Leipzig 33, 209 (1888).

Ravey, J.-C.

J.-C. Ravey, P. Mazeron, J. Opt. Paris 13, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Siemes, W.

W. Siemes, Chem. Ing. Tech. 26, 614 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Stratton, J. A.

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941), p. 499.

Tsai, W. C.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 207.

Wallis, G. B.

G. B. Wallis, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 1, 491 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. E.

R. Clift, J. R. Grace, M. E. Weber, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 7.

Wiscombe, W. J.

Ann. Phys. Chem. Leipzig

C. Pulfrich, Ann. Phys. Chem. Leipzig 33, 209 (1888).

Ann. Phys. Leipzig

G. Mie, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 25, 377 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Sci. Res.

P. L. Marston, D. S. Langley, D. L. Kingsbury, Appl. Sci. Res. 38, 373 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Ing. Tech.

W. Siemes, Chem. Ing. Tech. 26, 614 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Multiphase Flow

G. B. Wallis, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 1, 491 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Martin, A. H. Abdelmessih, J. J. Liska, F. Durst, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 7, 439 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am.

P. L. Marston, D. L. Kingsbury, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 70, 1488 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

B. D. Johnson, R. C. Cooke, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3761 (1979); F. Avellan, F. Resch, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 9, 649 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Paris

J.-C. Ravey, P. Mazeron, J. Opt. Paris 13, 273 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. S. Langley, P. L. Marston, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 913 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng.

W. L. Haberman, R. K. Morton, Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. 121, 227 (1956).

Other

R. Clift, J. R. Grace, M. E. Weber, Bubbles, Drops, and Particles (Academic, New York, 1978), Chap. 7.

G. C. Farnell, in The Theory of the Photographic Process, C. E. K. Mees, T. H. James, Eds. (Macmillan, New York, 1966), Chap. 6, p. 72.

Reciprocity failure may alter the H-D curve shape at different incident light intensities. Tests indicate this effect was negligible under the conditions of this experiment.

S. Hartland, R. Hartley, Axisymmetric Fluid–Liquid Interfaces (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1976).

J. A. Stratton, Electromagnetic Theory (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1941), p. 499.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), p. 207.

P. L. Marston, D. S. Langley, in Near Zero: New Frontiers in Physics, B. S. Deaver, C. W. F. Everitt, Eds. (Freeman, San Francisco, 1984).

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