Abstract

The Dave vector model is shown to be a good representation of the atmospheric effects on the photometry and polarimetry of the sky above Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) on 6 Nov. 1982 produced by the El Chichon veil. Observations and modeling were accomplished at 0.36, 0.400, and 0.500 μm based on fundamental aerosol data. The effects of nonsphericity of the aerosols are included as a previously validated approximation in the input data. Extensive use was made of ground and air truth data available at MLO and the National Weather Service. From the modeling, the vertical number density of the El Chichon aerosol is deduced. The sky is found to be unusually bright from the aerosol scattering (radiance of 0.4 MW/m2/sr at a wavelength of 0.500 μm in the southerly and westerly directions at a sensor zenith angle of 60°) and the corresponding percent polarization low (~3%). Associated meteorological observations indicate stratospheric heating.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. E. Strong, L. L. Stowe, C. C. Walton, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983); also Geofis. Int. 23, 3 (1984).
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  3. G. A. Herbert, Ed., Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change 8, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, ERL, Boulder, Colo. (Dec.1979).
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  7. J. V. Dave, “Development of Programs for Computing Characteristics of Ultraviolet Radiation,” NASA Report S80-RADTMO, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (1972).
  8. J. V. Dave, “Development of Programs for Computing Characteristics of Ultraviolet Radiation,” Technical Report—Vector Case, Report on contract NAS-5-21680, International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, Md. (1972).
  9. W. G. Egan, in Proceedings, Fifth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1968), pp. 169–189.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Diermendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (American Elsevier, New York, 1965).
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  13. J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).
  14. J. W. Harder, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).
  15. K. F. Palmer, D. Williams, Appl. Opt. 14, 208 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  16. R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, AF CRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Paper 411, Bedford, Mass.
  17. W. G. Egan, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983).
  18. L. L. Smith, Grumman Research & Development Center; private communication (1983).
  19. N. M. Ashok, H. C. Bhatt, T. Chandrasekhar, J. N. Desai, Nature London 300, 620 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. J. Dunkerton, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,831 (1983).

1983 (4)

J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

J. W. Harder, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Dunkerton, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,831 (1983).

1982 (2)

N. M. Ashok, H. C. Bhatt, T. Chandrasekhar, J. N. Desai, Nature London 300, 620 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Egan, Appl. Opt. 21, 1445 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

Ashok, N. M.

N. M. Ashok, H. C. Bhatt, T. Chandrasekhar, J. N. Desai, Nature London 300, 620 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, H. C.

N. M. Ashok, H. C. Bhatt, T. Chandrasekhar, J. N. Desai, Nature London 300, 620 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, T.

N. M. Ashok, H. C. Bhatt, T. Chandrasekhar, J. N. Desai, Nature London 300, 620 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Coulson, K. L.

J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Coulson, “Zenith Skylight Characteristics in the Sunrise Period at Mauna Loa,” in Mauna Loa Observatory, A Twentieth Anniversary Report, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, 1978-677-034/17 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, “Development of Programs for Computing Characteristics of Ultraviolet Radiation,” NASA Report S80-RADTMO, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (1972).

J. V. Dave, “Development of Programs for Computing Characteristics of Ultraviolet Radiation,” Technical Report—Vector Case, Report on contract NAS-5-21680, International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, Md. (1972).

DeFoor, T. E.

J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J. J.

J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Desai, J. N.

N. M. Ashok, H. C. Bhatt, T. Chandrasekhar, J. N. Desai, Nature London 300, 620 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Diermendjian, D.

D. Diermendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (American Elsevier, New York, 1965).

Dunkerton, T. J.

T. J. Dunkerton, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,831 (1983).

Dutton, E. G.

J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Egan, W. G.

W. G. Egan, Appl. Opt. 21, 1445 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Egan, in Proceedings, Fifth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1968), pp. 169–189.

W. G. Egan, J. E. A. Selby, “Atmospheric Radiation Transfer Effects from Mt. St. Helens Eruption Ash,” at 1980 International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo.

W. G. Egan, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983).

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, AF CRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Paper 411, Bedford, Mass.

Fesenkov, V. G.

V. G. Fesenkov, “The Twilight Method in the Study of the Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” in Scattering and Polarization of Light in the Atmosphere (USSR, 1961; Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1965), pp. 196–214.

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, AF CRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Paper 411, Bedford, Mass.

Harder, J. W.

J. W. Harder, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

Hoffman, D. J.

J. W. Harder, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, AF CRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Paper 411, Bedford, Mass.

Mendonca, B. G.

J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, K. F.

Rosen, J. M.

J. W. Harder, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

Selby, J. E. A.

W. G. Egan, J. E. A. Selby, “Atmospheric Radiation Transfer Effects from Mt. St. Helens Eruption Ash,” at 1980 International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, AF CRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Paper 411, Bedford, Mass.

Smith, L. L.

L. L. Smith, Grumman Research & Development Center; private communication (1983).

Stowe, L. L.

A. E. Strong, L. L. Stowe, C. C. Walton, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983); also Geofis. Int. 23, 3 (1984).

Strong, A. E.

A. E. Strong, L. L. Stowe, C. C. Walton, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983); also Geofis. Int. 23, 3 (1984).

Volz, F. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, AF CRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Paper 411, Bedford, Mass.

Walton, C. C.

A. E. Strong, L. L. Stowe, C. C. Walton, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983); also Geofis. Int. 23, 3 (1984).

Williams, D.

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

J. J. DeLuisi, E. G. Dutton, K. L. Coulson, T. E. DeFoor, B. G. Mendonca, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 6769 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Dunkerton, J. Geophys. Res. 88, 10,831 (1983).

Nature London (1)

N. M. Ashok, H. C. Bhatt, T. Chandrasekhar, J. N. Desai, Nature London 300, 620 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Am. Geophys. Union (2)

J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

J. W. Harder, J. M. Rosen, D. J. Hoffman, Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 64, 197 (1983).

Other (14)

D. Diermendjian, Electromagnetic Scattering on Spherical Polydispersions (American Elsevier, New York, 1965).

W. G. Egan, J. E. A. Selby, “Atmospheric Radiation Transfer Effects from Mt. St. Helens Eruption Ash,” at 1980 International Radiation Symposium, Ft. Collins, Colo.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, AF CRL-72-0497, Environmental Research Paper 411, Bedford, Mass.

W. G. Egan, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983).

L. L. Smith, Grumman Research & Development Center; private communication (1983).

A. E. Strong, L. L. Stowe, C. C. Walton, in Proceedings, Seventeenth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1983); also Geofis. Int. 23, 3 (1984).

K. L. Coulson, “Zenith Skylight Characteristics in the Sunrise Period at Mauna Loa,” in Mauna Loa Observatory, A Twentieth Anniversary Report, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, 1978-677-034/17 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1978).

G. A. Herbert, Ed., Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change 8, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, ERL, Boulder, Colo. (Dec.1979).

J. J. DeLuisi, Ed., Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change 9, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, ERL, Boulder, Colo. (Dec.1980).

B. A. Bodhaine, J. M. Harris, Eds., Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change 10, U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA, ERL, Boulder, Colo. (Dec.1981).

V. G. Fesenkov, “The Twilight Method in the Study of the Optical Properties of the Atmosphere,” in Scattering and Polarization of Light in the Atmosphere (USSR, 1961; Israel Program for Scientific Translations, Jerusalem, 1965), pp. 196–214.

J. V. Dave, “Development of Programs for Computing Characteristics of Ultraviolet Radiation,” NASA Report S80-RADTMO, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Md. (1972).

J. V. Dave, “Development of Programs for Computing Characteristics of Ultraviolet Radiation,” Technical Report—Vector Case, Report on contract NAS-5-21680, International Business Machines Corp., Gaithersburg, Md. (1972).

W. G. Egan, in Proceedings, Fifth Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1968), pp. 169–189.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Horizontal direct solar and total radiation at Mauna Loa Observatory on 6 Nov. 1982 as a function of wavelength and solar zenith angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photometric; (b) polarimetric. Optical properties of sky above Mauna Loa Observatory 6 Nov. 1982, λ = 0.36 μm, and comparison to Dave vector model; solar zenith angle of 40° ± 3° in four azimuthal directions. Lines denote observations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photometric; (b) polarimetric. Optical properties of sky above Mauna Loa Observatory 6 Nov. 1982, λ = 0.400 μm, and comparison to Dave vector model; solar zenith angle of 55° ± 3° in four azimuthal directions. Lines denote observations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photometric; (b) polarimetric. Optical properties of sky above Mauna Loa Observatory 6 Nov. 1982, λ = 0.500 μm, and comparison to Dave vector model; solar zenith angle of 45° ± 3° in four azimuthal directions. Lines denote observations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Vertical aerosol profile from the 32-layer Dave vector radiative transfer program.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of modeled Mie and Rayleigh scattering and absorption (at a wavelength of 0.500 μm) vs altitude showing scattering and absorption by the El Chichon aerosol cloud.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

U.S. Air Force Skew T, logp diagram of the atmosphere between the 100- and 20-mbar levels with Hilo, Haw. radiosonde data for 5–7 Nov. 1981 and 5–7 Nov. 1982; 5–7 Nov. 1981 (- · -), 5–7 Nov. 1982 (—), 6 Nov. 1982, at night (- - -).

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Input Parameters for Vector Atmospheric Programs; Mt. St. Helen’s Ash Collected at Spokane, Wash.

Tables Icon

Table II Vertical Optical Depths of Atmosphere

Tables Icon

Table III Characteristics of Incident Radiation

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