Abstract

The aging characteristics for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion during storage prior to exposure have been tested. We have found that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties. During this period the sensitivity and maximum density increase to a maximum level. Any additional aging may result in higher fog levels and loss of sensitivity. By keeping the film in an environment free of photographically active compounds it is possible to use this storage interval to optimize the films’ properties. Batches of film with different sensitivities age differently. Of the currently available emulsions, those with maximum sensitivity (measured at 1700 Å) are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. Significantly accelerated changes in aging properties were measured for the more sensitive emulsions. The successful use of such emulsions in space applications will require that careful consideration be given to time and temperature profiles. When the control of these factors is limited the use of less sensitive emulsions should be considered.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. C. Winter, M. E. VanHoosier, “Schumann-Type Photographic Film Preliminary Environmental Test Results,” NRL Report 7072, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (14July1970).
  2. A. Millikan, J. Altman, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co.; private communication (1980).
  3. V. Zhelev, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 26, 118 (1982).
  4. J. H. Underwood, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 644 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. P. Clifford, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 491 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. C. Miller, AAS Photobull. No. 16, 3 (1977).
  7. K. Kuge, S. Fujiwara, H. Hada, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 197 (1981).
  8. I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 34, 1310 (1912).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. M. Burton, A. T. Hatter, A. Ridgeley, Appl. Opt. 12, 1851 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. W. Cleveland, “Latent Image: Formation and Properties in Silve Halide Emulsions,” in SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering, W. Thomas, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1973).

1982

V. Zhelev, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 26, 118 (1982).

1981

K. Kuge, S. Fujiwara, H. Hada, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 197 (1981).

1977

J. H. Underwood, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 644 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Clifford, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 491 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Miller, AAS Photobull. No. 16, 3 (1977).

1973

1912

I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 34, 1310 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Altman, J.

A. Millikan, J. Altman, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co.; private communication (1980).

Burton, W. M.

Cleveland, H. W.

H. W. Cleveland, “Latent Image: Formation and Properties in Silve Halide Emulsions,” in SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering, W. Thomas, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1973).

Clifford, R. P.

R. P. Clifford, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 491 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, S.

K. Kuge, S. Fujiwara, H. Hada, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 197 (1981).

Hada, H.

K. Kuge, S. Fujiwara, H. Hada, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 197 (1981).

Hatter, A. T.

Kuge, K.

K. Kuge, S. Fujiwara, H. Hada, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 197 (1981).

Langmuir, I.

I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 34, 1310 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Miller, W. C.

W. C. Miller, AAS Photobull. No. 16, 3 (1977).

Millikan, A.

A. Millikan, J. Altman, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co.; private communication (1980).

Ridgeley, A.

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 644 (1977).
[CrossRef]

VanHoosier, M. E.

T. C. Winter, M. E. VanHoosier, “Schumann-Type Photographic Film Preliminary Environmental Test Results,” NRL Report 7072, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (14July1970).

Winter, T. C.

T. C. Winter, M. E. VanHoosier, “Schumann-Type Photographic Film Preliminary Environmental Test Results,” NRL Report 7072, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (14July1970).

Zhelev, V.

V. Zhelev, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 26, 118 (1982).

AAS Photobull. No. 16

W. C. Miller, AAS Photobull. No. 16, 3 (1977).

Appl. Opt.

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

I. Langmuir, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 34, 1310 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Photogr. Sci. Eng.

K. Kuge, S. Fujiwara, H. Hada, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 25, 197 (1981).

V. Zhelev, Photogr. Sci. Eng. 26, 118 (1982).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

J. H. Underwood, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 644 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Clifford, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 48, 491 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Other

T. C. Winter, M. E. VanHoosier, “Schumann-Type Photographic Film Preliminary Environmental Test Results,” NRL Report 7072, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. (14July1970).

A. Millikan, J. Altman, Research Laboratories, Eastman Kodak Co.; private communication (1980).

H. W. Cleveland, “Latent Image: Formation and Properties in Silve Halide Emulsions,” in SPSE Handbook of Photographic Science and Engineering, W. Thomas, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1973).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sensitometric curves for two of the emulsions tested based on measured and corrected densities. The solid curves show results for sensitometric exposures processed 2 h following exposure. The broken curves show the changes which occurred after the exposed films were placed in vacuum for 6 h at 21°C before development. The dashed curves show the effect on latent image of 36°C temperature excursion starting at 21°C for 6 h. The additional curve [dash–dot line in (a)] shows a typical effect of unspecified contamination in the vacuum system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emulsion 1 aging curves showing sensitivity vs fog level and maximum density vs fog levels for the periods indicated in weeks. The results are for 26°C nonhermetic storage.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Emulsion 2 aging curves showing sensitivity vs fog level and maximum density vs fog levels for the periods indicated in weeks. The results for hermetic storage are shown by the squares. Results for nonhermetic storage are shown by circles. Solid lines are for 20°C storage. Broken lines are for 26°C storage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emulsion 3 aging curves showing sensitivity vs fog level and maximum density vs fog levels for the periods indicated in weeks. The results are for 26°C nonhermetic storage.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Emulsion 4 aging curves showing sensitivity vs fog level and maximum density vs fog levels for the periods indicated in weeks. The results are for 26° nonherimetic storage.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emulsion 5 aging curves showing sensitivity vs fog levels and maximum density vs fog levels for the periods indicated in weeks. The results are for nonhermetic storage at 26°C (broken lines) and nonhermetics storage at 20°C (solid lines).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the Kodak vs NRL calibrations for the six most recent S0652 (type 101) emulsions received at NRL. The position of four of the five emulsions tested and described in the paper are shown at the top of the figure; 101 07 test, the fifth emulsion, is well outside this range.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Emulsions Which Were Tested, Identified by Their Kodak Assigned Numbers; Values of Relative Sensitivity are Equal to the Wedge Density ×100 Which Gave a Density of 0.3 Above Base Plus Fog

Tables Icon

Table II Fog Densities and Resolution in Line Pairs per Millimeters Before (Stock) and After 6-h Temperature Excursions, Resolution Results are in Parentheses; Stock emulsion was held at a temperature of −22°C

Tables Icon

Table III Fog Densities, Maximum Density, and Resolution (Expressed in Line Pair per Millimeter) of Emulsion 5 as a Function of Storage Time at the Temperature Shown

Tables Icon

Table IV A Comparison of Film Calibrations at Various Wavelengths.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D corrected = D measured - D max - D measured D max - D fog · D fog
D corrected = D measured - D max - D measured D max - D fog test · ( D fog test - D fog ) .
DQE ( d D / d log E ) 2 σ ( D ) 2 · S .
σ K 2 = i = 1 N K i 2 - ( i = 1 N K i ) 2 N , M = i = 1 N X i i = 1 N Y i - N i = 1 N X i Y i ( i = 1 N X i ) 2 - N i = 1 N X i 2 ;

Metrics