Abstract

Digital techniques are presented for xerographylike enhancement of features in film mammograms. The mammographic image is first digitized using a procedure for gray scale dynamic range expansion. A pixel operator is then applied to the image, which performs contrast enhancement according to a specified function. The final transformation leads to either a positive or negative mode display as desired. We also present an adaptive neighborhood feature enhancement technique that enhances visibility of objects and details in an image. The availability of the enhanced images should aid diagnosis of breast cancer without requiring additional x-ray dose such as for xeromammography.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.
  2. L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
    [PubMed]
  3. L. N. Rothenburg, R. L. A. Kirch, R. E. Snyder, Radiology 117, 701 (1975).
  4. J. N. Wolfe, R. P. Dooley, L. E. Harkins, Cancer 28, 1569 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. M. Rangayyan, R. Gordon, “Expanding the Dynamic Range of X-Ray Videodensitometry for Digital Mammography and Teleradiology,” Appl. Opt.00, 000 (1983), submitted.
  6. G. H. Zeman, G. U. V. Rao, F. A. Osterman, Radiology 119, 689 (1976).
    [PubMed]
  7. J. W. Boag, Phys. Med. Biol. 18, 3 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. E. J. Neugebauer, Appl. Opt. 4, 453 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. A. Kilgore, E. C. Gregg, P. S. Rao, Opt. Eng. 13, 130 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. B. McSweeney, P. Sprawls, R. L. Egan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 140, 9 (1983).
  11. H. J. Trussell, Proc. IEEE 69, 615 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Pixel-Independent Image Processing,” in preparation.
  13. R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Radiographic Feature Enhancement, Information Content and Dose Reduction in Mammography and Cardiac Angiography,” in Proceedings, Fifth Annual Conference on Frontiers of Engineering and Computing in Health Care (IEEE-EMBS), Columbus, Sept.1983, pp. 161–165.
  14. A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing (Academic, New York, 1982).

1983 (1)

M. B. McSweeney, P. Sprawls, R. L. Egan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 140, 9 (1983).

1981 (1)

H. J. Trussell, Proc. IEEE 69, 615 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

1979 (1)

L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
[PubMed]

1976 (1)

G. H. Zeman, G. U. V. Rao, F. A. Osterman, Radiology 119, 689 (1976).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

L. N. Rothenburg, R. L. A. Kirch, R. E. Snyder, Radiology 117, 701 (1975).

1974 (1)

R. A. Kilgore, E. C. Gregg, P. S. Rao, Opt. Eng. 13, 130 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. W. Boag, Phys. Med. Biol. 18, 3 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

J. N. Wolfe, R. P. Dooley, L. E. Harkins, Cancer 28, 1569 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

Arndt, R. D.

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

Bassett, L. W.

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

Benedetti, J.

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

Boag, J. W.

J. W. Boag, Phys. Med. Biol. 18, 3 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, J. L.

L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
[PubMed]

Dooley, R. P.

J. N. Wolfe, R. P. Dooley, L. E. Harkins, Cancer 28, 1569 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egan, R. L.

M. B. McSweeney, P. Sprawls, R. L. Egan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 140, 9 (1983).

Gold, R. H.

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

Gordon, R.

R. M. Rangayyan, R. Gordon, “Expanding the Dynamic Range of X-Ray Videodensitometry for Digital Mammography and Teleradiology,” Appl. Opt.00, 000 (1983), submitted.

R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Pixel-Independent Image Processing,” in preparation.

R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Radiographic Feature Enhancement, Information Content and Dose Reduction in Mammography and Cardiac Angiography,” in Proceedings, Fifth Annual Conference on Frontiers of Engineering and Computing in Health Care (IEEE-EMBS), Columbus, Sept.1983, pp. 161–165.

Gregg, E. C.

R. A. Kilgore, E. C. Gregg, P. S. Rao, Opt. Eng. 13, 130 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Harkins, L. E.

J. N. Wolfe, R. P. Dooley, L. E. Harkins, Cancer 28, 1569 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kak, A. C.

A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing (Academic, New York, 1982).

Kilgore, R. A.

R. A. Kilgore, E. C. Gregg, P. S. Rao, Opt. Eng. 13, 130 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kirch, R. L. A.

L. N. Rothenburg, R. L. A. Kirch, R. E. Snyder, Radiology 117, 701 (1975).

Lightfoot, D. A.

L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
[PubMed]

Linsman, J.

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

McSweeney, M. B.

M. B. McSweeney, P. Sprawls, R. L. Egan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 140, 9 (1983).

Neugebauer, H. E. J.

Osterman, F. A.

G. H. Zeman, G. U. V. Rao, F. A. Osterman, Radiology 119, 689 (1976).
[PubMed]

Pagani, J. J.

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

Rangayyan, R. M.

R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Pixel-Independent Image Processing,” in preparation.

R. M. Rangayyan, R. Gordon, “Expanding the Dynamic Range of X-Ray Videodensitometry for Digital Mammography and Teleradiology,” Appl. Opt.00, 000 (1983), submitted.

R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Radiographic Feature Enhancement, Information Content and Dose Reduction in Mammography and Cardiac Angiography,” in Proceedings, Fifth Annual Conference on Frontiers of Engineering and Computing in Health Care (IEEE-EMBS), Columbus, Sept.1983, pp. 161–165.

Rao, G. U. V.

G. H. Zeman, G. U. V. Rao, F. A. Osterman, Radiology 119, 689 (1976).
[PubMed]

Rao, P. S.

R. A. Kilgore, E. C. Gregg, P. S. Rao, Opt. Eng. 13, 130 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing (Academic, New York, 1982).

Rothenburg, L. N.

L. N. Rothenburg, R. L. A. Kirch, R. E. Snyder, Radiology 117, 701 (1975).

Scanlan, R. L.

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

Snyder, R. E.

L. N. Rothenburg, R. L. A. Kirch, R. E. Snyder, Radiology 117, 701 (1975).

Sprawls, P.

M. B. McSweeney, P. Sprawls, R. L. Egan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 140, 9 (1983).

Stanton, L.

L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
[PubMed]

Stanton, R. E.

L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
[PubMed]

Trussell, H. J.

H. J. Trussell, Proc. IEEE 69, 615 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Villafana, T.

L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
[PubMed]

Wolfe, J. N.

J. N. Wolfe, R. P. Dooley, L. E. Harkins, Cancer 28, 1569 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeman, G. H.

G. H. Zeman, G. U. V. Rao, F. A. Osterman, Radiology 119, 689 (1976).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Roentgenol. (2)

J. J. Pagani, L. W. Bassett, R. H. Gold, J. Benedetti, R. D. Arndt, J. Linsman, R. L. Scanlan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 135, 141 (1980.

M. B. McSweeney, P. Sprawls, R. L. Egan, Am. J. Roentgenol. 140, 9 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Cancer (1)

J. N. Wolfe, R. P. Dooley, L. E. Harkins, Cancer 28, 1569 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. A. Kilgore, E. C. Gregg, P. S. Rao, Opt. Eng. 13, 130 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. W. Boag, Phys. Med. Biol. 18, 3 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. J. Trussell, Proc. IEEE 69, 615 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (3)

L. Stanton, T. Villafana, J. L. Day, D. A. Lightfoot, R. E. Stanton, Radiology 132, 455 (1979).
[PubMed]

L. N. Rothenburg, R. L. A. Kirch, R. E. Snyder, Radiology 117, 701 (1975).

G. H. Zeman, G. U. V. Rao, F. A. Osterman, Radiology 119, 689 (1976).
[PubMed]

Other (4)

R. M. Rangayyan, R. Gordon, “Expanding the Dynamic Range of X-Ray Videodensitometry for Digital Mammography and Teleradiology,” Appl. Opt.00, 000 (1983), submitted.

R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Pixel-Independent Image Processing,” in preparation.

R. Gordon, R. M. Rangayyan, “Radiographic Feature Enhancement, Information Content and Dose Reduction in Mammography and Cardiac Angiography,” in Proceedings, Fifth Annual Conference on Frontiers of Engineering and Computing in Health Care (IEEE-EMBS), Columbus, Sept.1983, pp. 161–165.

A. Rosenfeld, A. C. Kak, Digital Picture Processing (Academic, New York, 1982).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

For a dark square of size 3 × 3 pixels on a light background the contrast is zero in case (a) with center/surround of (1 × 1, 3 × 3); the contrast is maximum in (b) with center/surround of (3 × 3, 9 × 9);the contrast starts to fall with the next step of center/surround of (5 × 5, 15 × 15) as in (c). The center and surround regions are marked c and s in the figures, with the dark square hatched.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Digitized mammogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Contrast enhancement using a fixed 3 × 3 neighborhood.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microcalcification cluster from a mammogram (enlarged and digitized).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Edge enhancement by adding digital derivative, achieved by convolving with the 3 × 3 mask (−0.125, −0.125, −0.125; −0.125, 2, −0.125; −0.125, −0.125, −0.125), followed by clipping to the display range of 0–63.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contrast enhancement using a fixed 3 × 3 neighborhood.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Adaptive neighborhood feature enhancement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Picture of neighborhood size used at different pixel locations. Whiter pixels in this range image represent pixels in the original image with larger adaptive neighborhoods.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Adaptive neighborhood enhancement of mammogram in Fig. 2.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Range image for Fig. 2.

Equations (3)

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C = p - a / ( p + a ) .
p = a ( 1 + C ) / ( 1 - C ) if p a , p = a ( 1 - C ) / ( 1 + C ) if p < a .
p = 255 ( p - min ) / ( max - min )             positive mode , p = 255 ( max - p ) / ( max - min )             negative mode ,

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