Abstract

Oxygen ion-assisted deposition of SiO2 and TiO2 has been investigated as a function of ion energy (30–500 eV) and current density (0–300 μA/cm2) at the optic. It is shown that both low and high energy ion bombardment improve SiO2 film stoichiometry, although slightly greater improvement is realized for the low energy case. For TiO2 films, low energy bombardment improves stoichiometry, while high energy bombardment is clearly detrimental. A reduction in H content by a factor of 10 is observed in SiO2 films deposited with high energy ion bombardment. Durable films are produced at low substrate temperatures (50–100°C). Film stress characteristics are discussed.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (American Elsevier, New York, 1969), pp. 229–30.
  2. W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).
  3. R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. A. Hoffmann, W. J. Lange, Opt. Eng. 16, 338 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Spalvins, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 315 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, Thin Solid Films 52, 445 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Ebert, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, (1982).
  10. H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 272 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Le Vaguerese, D. Pigache, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 325 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. M. E. Harper, M. Heiblum, J. L. Speidell, J. H. Cuomo, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4118 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. Heitmann, Appl. Opt. 10, 2414 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. H. Allen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).
  16. P. H. Holloway, G. C. Nelson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 783 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Kelly, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 149, 553 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Turos, W. F. van der Weg, J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2777 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  19. See, for example, W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979); see also W. T. Pawlewicz, P. M. Martin, D. D. Hays, I. B. Mann, “Recent Developments in Reactively Sputtered Optical Thin Films,” Final Report for DOE contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830 (Dec.1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. L. Vossen, J. J. Cuomo, in Thin Film Processes, J. L. Vossen, W. Kern, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 55–60.
  21. E. W. McDaniel, Collision Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Wiley, New York, 1964), pp. 252–9.
  22. W. D. Davis, T. A. Vanderslice, Phys. Rev. 121, 214 (1963).
  23. J. J. Cuomo, personal communication.
  24. B. L. Doyle, P. S. Peercy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 811 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Roll, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3224 (1976).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (3)

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Allen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).

1981 (1)

J. M. E. Harper, M. Heiblum, J. L. Speidell, J. H. Cuomo, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

T. Spalvins, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

B. L. Doyle, P. S. Peercy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979); see also W. T. Pawlewicz, P. M. Martin, D. D. Hays, I. B. Mann, “Recent Developments in Reactively Sputtered Optical Thin Films,” Final Report for DOE contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830 (Dec.1981).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Holloway, G. C. Nelson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

R. Kelly, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 149, 553 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, Thin Solid Films 52, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 272 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

R. A. Hoffmann, W. J. Lange, Opt. Eng. 16, 338 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

K. Roll, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3224 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

A. Turos, W. F. van der Weg, J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2777 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

W. Heitmann, Appl. Opt. 10, 2414 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Le Vaguerese, D. Pigache, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 325 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

W. D. Davis, T. A. Vanderslice, Phys. Rev. 121, 214 (1963).

1962 (1)

E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Allen, T. H.

T. H. Allen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).

Bland, R. D.

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Busch, R.

See, for example, W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979); see also W. T. Pawlewicz, P. M. Martin, D. D. Hays, I. B. Mann, “Recent Developments in Reactively Sputtered Optical Thin Films,” Final Report for DOE contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830 (Dec.1981).
[CrossRef]

Cuomo, J. H.

J. M. E. Harper, M. Heiblum, J. L. Speidell, J. H. Cuomo, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Cuomo, J. J.

J. J. Cuomo, personal communication.

J. L. Vossen, J. J. Cuomo, in Thin Film Processes, J. L. Vossen, W. Kern, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 55–60.

Davis, W. D.

W. D. Davis, T. A. Vanderslice, Phys. Rev. 121, 214 (1963).

Doyle, B. L.

B. L. Doyle, P. S. Peercy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

J. Ebert, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, (1982).

Harper, J. M. E.

J. M. E. Harper, M. Heiblum, J. L. Speidell, J. H. Cuomo, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heiblum, M.

J. M. E. Harper, M. Heiblum, J. L. Speidell, J. H. Cuomo, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Heitmann, W.

Herrmann, W. C.

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).

Hirsch, E. H.

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, Thin Solid Films 52, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, R. A.

R. A. Hoffmann, W. J. Lange, Opt. Eng. 16, 338 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Holloway, P. H.

P. H. Holloway, G. C. Nelson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, H. R.

H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 272 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, R.

R. Kelly, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 149, 553 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kominiak, G. J.

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Lange, W. J.

R. A. Hoffmann, W. J. Lange, Opt. Eng. 16, 338 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Le Vaguerese, P.

P. Le Vaguerese, D. Pigache, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 325 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (American Elsevier, New York, 1969), pp. 229–30.

Martin, P. J.

Mattox, D. M.

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, J. W.

A. Turos, W. F. van der Weg, J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2777 (1974).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, E. W.

E. W. McDaniel, Collision Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Wiley, New York, 1964), pp. 252–9.

McNeil, J. R.

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, G. C.

P. H. Holloway, G. C. Nelson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Netterfield, R. P.

Pacey, C. G.

Pawlewicz, W. T.

See, for example, W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979); see also W. T. Pawlewicz, P. M. Martin, D. D. Hays, I. B. Mann, “Recent Developments in Reactively Sputtered Optical Thin Films,” Final Report for DOE contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830 (Dec.1981).
[CrossRef]

Peercy, P. S.

B. L. Doyle, P. S. Peercy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pigache, D.

P. Le Vaguerese, D. Pigache, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 325 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, E.

E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Roll, K.

K. Roll, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3224 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Spalvins, T.

T. Spalvins, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Speidell, J. L.

J. M. E. Harper, M. Heiblum, J. L. Speidell, J. H. Cuomo, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Turos, A.

A. Turos, W. F. van der Weg, J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2777 (1974).
[CrossRef]

van der Weg, W. F.

A. Turos, W. F. van der Weg, J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2777 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Vanderslice, T. A.

W. D. Davis, T. A. Vanderslice, Phys. Rev. 121, 214 (1963).

Varga, I. K.

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, Thin Solid Films 52, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vossen, J. L.

J. L. Vossen, J. J. Cuomo, in Thin Film Processes, J. L. Vossen, W. Kern, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 55–60.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. L. Doyle, P. S. Peercy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 811 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Conference on Optical Thin Films (1)

W. C. Herrmann, J. R. McNeil, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. M. E. Harper, M. Heiblum, J. L. Speidell, J. H. Cuomo, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4118 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Turos, W. F. van der Weg, J. W. Mayer, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 2777 (1974).
[CrossRef]

K. Roll, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 3224 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (5)

P. H. Holloway, G. C. Nelson, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 783 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Bland, G. J. Kominiak, D. M. Mattox, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 671 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, W. C. Herrmann, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 20, 324 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Spalvins, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 17, 315 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 272 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (1)

R. Kelly, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 149, 553 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

E. Ritter, Opt. Acta 9, 197 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. A. Hoffmann, W. J. Lange, Opt. Eng. 16, 338 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. D. Davis, T. A. Vanderslice, Phys. Rev. 121, 214 (1963).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

T. H. Allen, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, (1982).

Rev. Phys. Appl. (1)

P. Le Vaguerese, D. Pigache, Rev. Phys. Appl. 6, 325 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, Thin Solid Films 52, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, W. T. Pawlewicz, R. Busch, Thin Solid Films 63, 251 (1979); see also W. T. Pawlewicz, P. M. Martin, D. D. Hays, I. B. Mann, “Recent Developments in Reactively Sputtered Optical Thin Films,” Final Report for DOE contract DE-AC06-76RLO-1830 (Dec.1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. L. Vossen, J. J. Cuomo, in Thin Film Processes, J. L. Vossen, W. Kern, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1978), pp. 55–60.

E. W. McDaniel, Collision Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Wiley, New York, 1964), pp. 252–9.

J. Ebert, in Conference on Optical Thin Films, Proc. Soc. Photo. Opt. Instrum. Eng.325, (1982).

J. J. Cuomo, personal communication.

H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filters (American Elsevier, New York, 1969), pp. 229–30.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy distribution of ions produced by the Kaufman ion source used in this work and cold cathode discharge-type ion source (see Ref. 9). Note that the Kaufman source produces a fairly monoenergetic beam that can be varied; the two peaks are intended to illustrate this.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Quadrupole mass analysis of oxygen ion beam: (a) 30 and (b) 500 eV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmittance of SiO2 films on fused silica for 500-eV O + / O 2 + bombardment at different current densities. Film thickness in all cases is ~4000 Å.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmittance of SiO2 films on fused silica for 30-eV O + / O 2 + bombardment at different current densities. Film thickness in all cases is ~4000 Å.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical transmittance at 250 nm of SiO2 films illustrated Figs. 3 and 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmittance of SiO2 films deposited using e-beam and ion-assisted techniques.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmittance of TiO2 films on fused silica for 500-eV O + / O 2 + bombardment at different current densities. Film thickness in all cases is ~4000 Å.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmittance of TiO2 films on fused silica for 30-eV O + / O 2 + bombardment at different current densities. Film thickness in all cases is ~4000 Å.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical transmittance at ~580 nm of TiO2 films illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Average atomic percent of H content in ion bombarded SiO2 films. (b) Spatially resolved measurements of H content in films with the least, most, and moderate amounts of H [illustrated in (a)].

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Experimental Conditions at the Coated Optic for Film Deposition

Tables Icon

Table II Summary of Film Stress Measurements for Different O + / O 2 + Bombardment During Deposition; uncertainty in the Stress is ±0.6 × 10−9 dyn/cm2

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