Abstract

A low loss fusion splicing method for ribbon units has been developed and evaluated. Five fibers are heated simultaneously by 50-Hz ac electric discharges. The heating conditions and fiber aligning techniques are discussed in this paper. By using two pairs of electrodes, a stable and uniform heating condition was attained. In the splicing experiment, an average splice loss of 0.11 dB was obtained for 50-μm core diam graded-index silica fibers.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Hatano, H. Shinohara, F. Nihei, Paper of the Technical Group on Communicatin Systems IECE Jpn.CS80-190 (1981), in Japanese.
  2. A. H. Cherin, P. J. Rich, Appl. Opt. 14, 3026 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).
  4. P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).
  5. G. Le Noane, in Technical Digest, Second European Conference on Optical Communication, Paris (1976), paper VIII.2.
  6. F. L. Thiel, R. M. Hawk, Appl. Opt. 15, 2785 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Kinoshita, M. Kobayashi, Appl. Opt. 18, 3256 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Nagasawa, H. Murata, T. Satake, Paper of the Technical Group on Communication Systems IECE Jpn.CS79-206, (1980), in Japanese.
  9. I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, Appl. Opt. 17, 1959 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Tachikura, Electron. Lett. 17, 694 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Bisbee, Appl. Opt. 15, 796 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Hirai, N. Uchida, Electron. Lett. 13, 123 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  13. I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

1981 (1)

M. Tachikura, Electron. Lett. 17, 694 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, Appl. Opt. 17, 1959 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

M. Hirai, N. Uchida, Electron. Lett. 13, 123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

1975 (3)

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

A. H. Cherin, P. J. Rich, Appl. Opt. 14, 3026 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

Bisbee, D. L.

D. L. Bisbee, Appl. Opt. 15, 796 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

Cherin, A. H.

Chinnock, E. L.

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

Gloge, D.

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

Hatakeyama, I.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, Appl. Opt. 17, 1959 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatano, S.

S. Hatano, H. Shinohara, F. Nihei, Paper of the Technical Group on Communicatin Systems IECE Jpn.CS80-190 (1981), in Japanese.

Hawk, R. M.

Hirai, M.

M. Hirai, N. Uchida, Electron. Lett. 13, 123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, K.

Kobayashi, M.

Le Noane, G.

G. Le Noane, in Technical Digest, Second European Conference on Optical Communication, Paris (1976), paper VIII.2.

Miller, C. M.

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).

Murata, H.

S. Nagasawa, H. Murata, T. Satake, Paper of the Technical Group on Communication Systems IECE Jpn.CS79-206, (1980), in Japanese.

Nagasawa, S.

S. Nagasawa, H. Murata, T. Satake, Paper of the Technical Group on Communication Systems IECE Jpn.CS79-206, (1980), in Japanese.

Nihei, F.

S. Hatano, H. Shinohara, F. Nihei, Paper of the Technical Group on Communicatin Systems IECE Jpn.CS80-190 (1981), in Japanese.

Rich, P. J.

Satake, T.

S. Nagasawa, H. Murata, T. Satake, Paper of the Technical Group on Communication Systems IECE Jpn.CS79-206, (1980), in Japanese.

Shinohara, H.

S. Hatano, H. Shinohara, F. Nihei, Paper of the Technical Group on Communicatin Systems IECE Jpn.CS80-190 (1981), in Japanese.

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

Tachikura, M.

M. Tachikura, Electron. Lett. 17, 694 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, F. L.

Tsuchiya, H.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, Appl. Opt. 17, 1959 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, N.

M. Hirai, N. Uchida, Electron. Lett. 13, 123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (3)

C. M. Miller, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 1547 (1975).

P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, D. Gloge, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 54, 971 (1975).

D. Gloge, P. W. Smith, D. L. Bisbee, E. L. Chinnock, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1579 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Tachikura, Electron. Lett. 17, 694 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Hirai, N. Uchida, Electron. Lett. 13, 123 (1977).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Le Noane, in Technical Digest, Second European Conference on Optical Communication, Paris (1976), paper VIII.2.

S. Hatano, H. Shinohara, F. Nihei, Paper of the Technical Group on Communicatin Systems IECE Jpn.CS80-190 (1981), in Japanese.

S. Nagasawa, H. Murata, T. Satake, Paper of the Technical Group on Communication Systems IECE Jpn.CS79-206, (1980), in Japanese.

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Figures (21)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Measuring setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Observed light distribution around the positive column of 50-Hz glow discharge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Inverse Abel transforms for the observed data (solid lines) and fitted Gaussian profiles (dotted lines).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Discharge current distribution between a pair of electrodes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Construction of fiber ribbon unit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fiber temperatures when fibers are set on the electrode axis and heated by the discharge between one pair of electrodes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fiber temperatures when fibers are shifted from electrode axis and heated by the discharge between one pair of electrodes; I e is effective discharge current.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Discharge current distribution between two pairs of electrodes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Discharge heating method by two pairs of electrodes.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Fiber temperatures when fibers were heated by discharges between two pairs of electrodes.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Fiber temperature distribution along the fiber axis.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Fusion mass-splicing method by discharge heating.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Fiber mass-cutting technique.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Histogram of fiber endface position differences after mass-cutting.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Aligning procedure for fibers in ribbon units.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Aligned fiber ends.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Fiber aligning mechanism in the splicing apparatus.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Setting condition for right-hand fibers in Fig. 13.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Splice loss measuring system.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Photograph of fibers being spliced

Fig. 21
Fig. 21

Splice loss histogram.

Equations (13)

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P ( x , z ) - p ( x , y , z ) d y ,
p = k i α ,
i ( x , y , z ) = I 0 2 π [ σ ( z ) ] 2 exp { - x 2 + y 2 2 [ σ ( z ) ] 2 } ,
p ( x , y , z ) 1 2 π [ σ p ( z ) ] 2 α exp { - x 2 + y 2 2 [ σ p ( z ) ] 2 } ,
σ p ( z ) = σ ( z ) α .
- P ( x , z ) d x 1 [ σ ( z ) ] 2 ( α - 1 ) ,
P ( 0 , z ) 1 [ σ ( z ) ] 2 α - 1 .
α = 1 - 1 2 [ ln ( S a / S b ) ln ( σ p a / σ p b ) ] ,
σ ( z ) = α σ p a [ P ( 0 , z ) P ( 0 , 0 ) ] - 1 / ( 2 α - 1 ) .
v = C ɛ λ 1 λ 2 S ( λ ) R ( λ , T ) d λ ,
ɛ = 1 - r - ( 1 - r ) 2 ,
h = L ( sin θ 3 + sin 3 θ 14 + sin 5 θ 88 + ) ,
W = 2 E I L 2 sin θ ,

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