Abstract

Use of holographic lenses in speckle metrology is studied. Experimental investigations show that speckle metrology can be advantageously carried out with holographic lenses. The effect of aberrations can be avoided using these lenses.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. R. Schwar, T. P. Pandya, F. J. Weinberg, “Point Source Holograms as Optical Elements,” Nature London 215, 239 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. W. Rose, “Holographic Lens Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 67 (1971).
  3. D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-up Displays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (1974), p. 58.
  4. R. V. Pole, H-P. Wollenmann, “Holographic Laser Beam Deflector,” Appl. Opt. 14, 976 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  5. J. E. Ludman, “Holographic Solar Concentrator,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3057 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. A. Ash, E. Seaford, O. D. D. Soares, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic Coupler for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 207 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Weingartner, K. J. Rosenbruck, “Chromatic Correction of Two- and Three-Elements Holographic Imaging Systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 519 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Shakher, J. N. Vaish, H. Vardhan, “A Two Element Holographic Enlarger,” J. Opt. Paris 14, 247 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Archbold, A. E. Ennos, “Displacement Measurement from Double Exposure Laser Photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. A. Leendertz, “Interferometric Displacement Measurement on Scattering Surfaces Utilizing Speckle Effect,” J. Phys. E 3, 214 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. J. Tiziani, “Application of Speckling for In-plane Vibration Analysis,” Opt. Acta 18, 891 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Tiziani, “A Study of the Use of Laser Speckle to Measure Small Tilts,” Opt. Commun. 5, 271 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Gregory, “Basic Physical Principles of Defocused Speckle Photography: A Tilt Topology Inspection Technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 201 (Oct.1976).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. P. Khetan, F-P. Chiang, “Strain Analysis by One-Beam Laser Speckle Interferometry. 1: Single Aperture Method,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2205 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Shakher, “Laser Speckle Photography Used for NDT of Diaphragms,” Appl. Opt. 21, 367 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. K. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms Using Split Lens Speckle Shearing Interferometer,” Non-Destr. Test. Guildford, Engl. 15, 329 (Dec.1982).

1983 (1)

C. Shakher, J. N. Vaish, H. Vardhan, “A Two Element Holographic Enlarger,” J. Opt. Paris 14, 247 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (4)

J. E. Ludman, “Holographic Solar Concentrator,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3057 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Weingartner, K. J. Rosenbruck, “Chromatic Correction of Two- and Three-Elements Holographic Imaging Systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 519 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. Shakher, “Laser Speckle Photography Used for NDT of Diaphragms,” Appl. Opt. 21, 367 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms Using Split Lens Speckle Shearing Interferometer,” Non-Destr. Test. Guildford, Engl. 15, 329 (Dec.1982).

1977 (1)

J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

D. A. Gregory, “Basic Physical Principles of Defocused Speckle Photography: A Tilt Topology Inspection Technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 201 (Oct.1976).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Khetan, F-P. Chiang, “Strain Analysis by One-Beam Laser Speckle Interferometry. 1: Single Aperture Method,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2205 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975 (1)

1974 (2)

D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-up Displays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (1974), p. 58.

E. A. Ash, E. Seaford, O. D. D. Soares, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic Coupler for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 207 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

E. Archbold, A. E. Ennos, “Displacement Measurement from Double Exposure Laser Photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “A Study of the Use of Laser Speckle to Measure Small Tilts,” Opt. Commun. 5, 271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

H. J. Tiziani, “Application of Speckling for In-plane Vibration Analysis,” Opt. Acta 18, 891 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Rose, “Holographic Lens Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 67 (1971).

1970 (1)

J. A. Leendertz, “Interferometric Displacement Measurement on Scattering Surfaces Utilizing Speckle Effect,” J. Phys. E 3, 214 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

M. J. R. Schwar, T. P. Pandya, F. J. Weinberg, “Point Source Holograms as Optical Elements,” Nature London 215, 239 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Archbold, E.

E. Archbold, A. E. Ennos, “Displacement Measurement from Double Exposure Laser Photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Ash, E. A.

E. A. Ash, E. Seaford, O. D. D. Soares, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic Coupler for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 207 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Butters, J. N.

J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chiang, F-P.

Close, D. H.

D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-up Displays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (1974), p. 58.

Ennos, A. E.

E. Archbold, A. E. Ennos, “Displacement Measurement from Double Exposure Laser Photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Gregory, D. A.

D. A. Gregory, “Basic Physical Principles of Defocused Speckle Photography: A Tilt Topology Inspection Technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 201 (Oct.1976).
[CrossRef]

Khetan, R. P.

Kothiyal, M. P.

R. K. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms Using Split Lens Speckle Shearing Interferometer,” Non-Destr. Test. Guildford, Engl. 15, 329 (Dec.1982).

Krishnamurthy, R. K.

R. K. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms Using Split Lens Speckle Shearing Interferometer,” Non-Destr. Test. Guildford, Engl. 15, 329 (Dec.1982).

Leendertz, J. A.

J. A. Leendertz, “Interferometric Displacement Measurement on Scattering Surfaces Utilizing Speckle Effect,” J. Phys. E 3, 214 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ludman, J. E.

Pandya, T. P.

M. J. R. Schwar, T. P. Pandya, F. J. Weinberg, “Point Source Holograms as Optical Elements,” Nature London 215, 239 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, K. S.

E. A. Ash, E. Seaford, O. D. D. Soares, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic Coupler for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 207 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pole, R. V.

Rose, H. W.

H. W. Rose, “Holographic Lens Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 67 (1971).

Rosenbruck, K. J.

I. Weingartner, K. J. Rosenbruck, “Chromatic Correction of Two- and Three-Elements Holographic Imaging Systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 519 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schwar, M. J. R.

M. J. R. Schwar, T. P. Pandya, F. J. Weinberg, “Point Source Holograms as Optical Elements,” Nature London 215, 239 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Seaford, E.

E. A. Ash, E. Seaford, O. D. D. Soares, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic Coupler for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 207 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shakher, C.

C. Shakher, J. N. Vaish, H. Vardhan, “A Two Element Holographic Enlarger,” J. Opt. Paris 14, 247 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Shakher, “Laser Speckle Photography Used for NDT of Diaphragms,” Appl. Opt. 21, 367 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirohi, R. S.

R. K. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms Using Split Lens Speckle Shearing Interferometer,” Non-Destr. Test. Guildford, Engl. 15, 329 (Dec.1982).

Soares, O. D. D.

E. A. Ash, E. Seaford, O. D. D. Soares, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic Coupler for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 207 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

H. J. Tiziani, “A Study of the Use of Laser Speckle to Measure Small Tilts,” Opt. Commun. 5, 271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “Application of Speckling for In-plane Vibration Analysis,” Opt. Acta 18, 891 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Vaish, J. N.

C. Shakher, J. N. Vaish, H. Vardhan, “A Two Element Holographic Enlarger,” J. Opt. Paris 14, 247 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Vardhan, H.

C. Shakher, J. N. Vaish, H. Vardhan, “A Two Element Holographic Enlarger,” J. Opt. Paris 14, 247 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Weinberg, F. J.

M. J. R. Schwar, T. P. Pandya, F. J. Weinberg, “Point Source Holograms as Optical Elements,” Nature London 215, 239 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Weingartner, I.

I. Weingartner, K. J. Rosenbruck, “Chromatic Correction of Two- and Three-Elements Holographic Imaging Systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 519 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wollenmann, H-P.

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. A. Ash, E. Seaford, O. D. D. Soares, K. S. Pennington, “Holographic Coupler for Integrated Optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 207 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Paris (1)

C. Shakher, J. N. Vaish, H. Vardhan, “A Two Element Holographic Enlarger,” J. Opt. Paris 14, 247 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

H. W. Rose, “Holographic Lens Systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 67 (1971).

J. Phys. E (1)

J. A. Leendertz, “Interferometric Displacement Measurement on Scattering Surfaces Utilizing Speckle Effect,” J. Phys. E 3, 214 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Nature London (1)

M. J. R. Schwar, T. P. Pandya, F. J. Weinberg, “Point Source Holograms as Optical Elements,” Nature London 215, 239 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Non-Destr. Test. Guildford, Engl. (1)

R. K. Krishnamurthy, R. S. Sirohi, M. P. Kothiyal, “Detection of Defects in Plates and Diaphragms Using Split Lens Speckle Shearing Interferometer,” Non-Destr. Test. Guildford, Engl. 15, 329 (Dec.1982).

Opt. Acta (3)

H. J. Tiziani, “Application of Speckling for In-plane Vibration Analysis,” Opt. Acta 18, 891 (1971).
[CrossRef]

E. Archbold, A. E. Ennos, “Displacement Measurement from Double Exposure Laser Photographs,” Opt. Acta 19, 253 (1972).
[CrossRef]

I. Weingartner, K. J. Rosenbruck, “Chromatic Correction of Two- and Three-Elements Holographic Imaging Systems,” Opt. Acta 29, 519 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. J. Tiziani, “A Study of the Use of Laser Speckle to Measure Small Tilts,” Opt. Commun. 5, 271 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

D. A. Gregory, “Basic Physical Principles of Defocused Speckle Photography: A Tilt Topology Inspection Technique,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 201 (Oct.1976).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Butters, “Application of ESPI to NDT,” Opt. Laser Technol. 9, 117 (1977).
[CrossRef]

SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (1)

D. H. Close, “Hologram Optics in Head-up Displays,” SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (1974), p. 58.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the geometry for recording holographic lenses.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the playback geometry for carrying out experiments.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Magnified photograph of a typical speckle pattern recorded through a hololens (diameter = 25 mm, focal length = 180 mm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical Fourier transform setup to obtain whole-field filtering fringes.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Speckle correlation fringes for in-plane rigid body translation 8 μm. (b) Speckle correlation fringes for in-plane rigid body translation 100 μm; the specklegram was recorded using a holospherical lens (f/No. = 7.2) made on dichromated gelatin.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Speckle correlation fringes (a) and (b) obtained from different regions of a double-exposure specklegram. The object was flat and rotated in its own plane during exposures. Specklegram was recorded using holospherical lens (f/No. = 7.2) made on dichromated gelatin

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Speckle correlation fringes (a) and (b) obtained from two different regions of a double-exposure specklegram of an object which was put under tensile load between the exposures. The specklegram was recorded using a holospherical lens (f/No. = 7.2) made on dichromated gelatin.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Speckle correlation fringes (a) and (b) obtained through different regions of the specklegram; (c) whole-field filtering fringes (fringes of equal out-of-plane displacements). The object was a cantilever which was loaded between the two exposures. The specklegram was recorded using a holospherical lens (f/No. = 7.2) made on dichromated gelatin.

Equations (5)

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σ 1.2 λ F ,
ρ 1.2 m λ F ,
sin α = n λ d = n λ m D ,
D * = n λ m sin α .
ψ = m t 2 δ u .

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