Abstract

Imaging systems with two pupils in the receiving optics have been used to synthesize bipolar point spread functions in incoherent image processing. We describe a two-pupil system using a scanning illumination technique and compare its attributes with more conventional techniques. Experimental examples using two-pupil interaction and an acoustooptic frequency offset for the direct 2-D bandpass filtering of diffusely reflecting objects are presented.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  3. A. W. Lohmann, W. T. Rhodes, “Two-Pupil Synthesis of Optical Transfer Functions,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1141 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. T. C. Poon, A. Korpel, “Optical Transfer Function of an Acousto-optic Heterodyning Image Processor,” Opt. Lett. 4, 317 (1979).
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  5. P. Chavel, S. Lowenthal, “Incoherent Optical-Image Processing Using Synthetic Holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 14 (1976).
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  6. B. Braunecker, R. Hauk, “Grey Level on Axis Computer Holograms for Incoherent Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 20, 234 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Bartelt, A. W. Lohmann, “Optical Processing of One-Dimensional Signals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 87 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, J. D. Michaelson, “Real Time Incoherent Optical-Electronic Image Subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 8, 105 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Hausler, A. Lohmann, “Hybrid Image Processing,” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, E. Marom, A. Friesem, E. Wiener-Avnear, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1977), p. 9–18.
  10. E. Marom, N. Konforti, “Low Frequency De-emphasis of the Modulation Transfer Function,” Opt. Commun. 41, 388 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, “Image Subtraction by Polarization-shifted Periodic Carrier,” Opt. Commun. 8, 100 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Indebetouw, L. Bernardo, M. Miller, “Real-time Incoherent Subtraction of Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1218 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. T. Rhodes, “Phase-Switching Synthesis of Arbitrary Optical Transfer Functions,” in Proceedings, 1976 International Optical Computing Conference, Capri, Italy, S. Horwitz, Ed. (IEEE, New York, 1977), pp. 62–64.
  14. D. Gorlitz, F. Lanzl, “Methods of Zero-order Non-coherent Filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. W. Lohmann, “Incoherent Optical Processing of Complex Data,” Appl. Opt. 16, 261 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Stoner, “Edge Enhancement with Incoherent Optics,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1451 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Stoner, “Incoherent Optical Processing via Spatially Offset Pupil Masks,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2454 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. L. Rogers, “Non-coherent Optical Processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 153 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Macovski, “Use of Frequency Offset in Incoherent Optical Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1745 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. G. L. Rogers, “Temporal Modulation in Noncoherent Optical Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 13, 997 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. T. Rhodes, “Bipolar Pointspread Function Synthesis by Phase Switching,” Appl. Opt. 16, 265 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. H. Barrett, A. F. Gmitro, M. Y. Chiu, “Use of an Image Orthicon as an Array of Lock-in Amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 1 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. S. Vasiliev, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfenov, “Advances in Development and Applications of Optically Controlled Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Optik 67, 223 (1984).
  24. G. Indebetouw, “Scanning Optical Data Processor,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 197 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Kermish, “Partial Coherent Image Processing by Laser Scanning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 887 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Indebetouw, “Non-linear/adaptive Image Processing with a Scanning Optical System,” Opt. Eng. 23, 73 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. N. Mait, W. T. Rhodes, “Iterative Design of Pupil Functions for Bipolar Incoherent Spatial Filtering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 292, 66 (1981).

1984 (2)

A. S. Vasiliev, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfenov, “Advances in Development and Applications of Optically Controlled Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Optik 67, 223 (1984).

G. Indebetouw, “Non-linear/adaptive Image Processing with a Scanning Optical System,” Opt. Eng. 23, 73 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

H. Bartelt, A. W. Lohmann, “Optical Processing of One-Dimensional Signals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Marom, N. Konforti, “Low Frequency De-emphasis of the Modulation Transfer Function,” Opt. Commun. 41, 388 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

G. Indebetouw, “Scanning Optical Data Processor,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Mait, W. T. Rhodes, “Iterative Design of Pupil Functions for Bipolar Incoherent Spatial Filtering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 292, 66 (1981).

H. H. Barrett, A. F. Gmitro, M. Y. Chiu, “Use of an Image Orthicon as an Array of Lock-in Amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 6, 1 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (3)

1977 (5)

1976 (1)

1975 (2)

D. Kermish, “Partial Coherent Image Processing by Laser Scanning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 65, 887 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Rogers, “Non-coherent Optical Processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 153 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (3)

A. Macovski, “Use of Frequency Offset in Incoherent Optical Data Processing,” Appl. Opt. 12, 1745 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, “Image Subtraction by Polarization-shifted Periodic Carrier,” Opt. Commun. 8, 100 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, J. D. Michaelson, “Real Time Incoherent Optical-Electronic Image Subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 8, 105 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

Barrett, H. H.

Bartelt, H.

H. Bartelt, A. W. Lohmann, “Optical Processing of One-Dimensional Signals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Bernardo, L.

Braunecker, B.

B. Braunecker, R. Hauk, “Grey Level on Axis Computer Holograms for Incoherent Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 20, 234 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

Chiu, M. Y.

Dashiell, S. R.

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, “Image Subtraction by Polarization-shifted Periodic Carrier,” Opt. Commun. 8, 100 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, J. D. Michaelson, “Real Time Incoherent Optical-Electronic Image Subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 8, 105 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gmitro, A. F.

Gorlitz, D.

D. Gorlitz, F. Lanzl, “Methods of Zero-order Non-coherent Filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hauk, R.

B. Braunecker, R. Hauk, “Grey Level on Axis Computer Holograms for Incoherent Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 20, 234 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hausler, G.

G. Hausler, A. Lohmann, “Hybrid Image Processing,” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, E. Marom, A. Friesem, E. Wiener-Avnear, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1977), p. 9–18.

Indebetouw, G.

G. Indebetouw, “Non-linear/adaptive Image Processing with a Scanning Optical System,” Opt. Eng. 23, 73 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Indebetouw, “Scanning Optical Data Processor,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Indebetouw, L. Bernardo, M. Miller, “Real-time Incoherent Subtraction of Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1218 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kermish, D.

Kompanets, I. N.

A. S. Vasiliev, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfenov, “Advances in Development and Applications of Optically Controlled Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Optik 67, 223 (1984).

Konforti, N.

E. Marom, N. Konforti, “Low Frequency De-emphasis of the Modulation Transfer Function,” Opt. Commun. 41, 388 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Korpel, A.

Lanzl, F.

D. Gorlitz, F. Lanzl, “Methods of Zero-order Non-coherent Filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Lohmann, A.

G. Hausler, A. Lohmann, “Hybrid Image Processing,” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, E. Marom, A. Friesem, E. Wiener-Avnear, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1977), p. 9–18.

Lohmann, A. W.

H. Bartelt, A. W. Lohmann, “Optical Processing of One-Dimensional Signals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Lohmann, W. T. Rhodes, “Two-Pupil Synthesis of Optical Transfer Functions,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1141 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Lohmann, “Incoherent Optical Processing of Complex Data,” Appl. Opt. 16, 261 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, “Image Subtraction by Polarization-shifted Periodic Carrier,” Opt. Commun. 8, 100 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, J. D. Michaelson, “Real Time Incoherent Optical-Electronic Image Subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 8, 105 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lowenthal, S.

Lukosz, W.

Macovski, A.

Mait, J. N.

J. N. Mait, W. T. Rhodes, “Iterative Design of Pupil Functions for Bipolar Incoherent Spatial Filtering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 292, 66 (1981).

Marom, E.

E. Marom, N. Konforti, “Low Frequency De-emphasis of the Modulation Transfer Function,” Opt. Commun. 41, 388 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Michaelson, J. D.

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, J. D. Michaelson, “Real Time Incoherent Optical-Electronic Image Subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 8, 105 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M.

Parfenov, A. V.

A. S. Vasiliev, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfenov, “Advances in Development and Applications of Optically Controlled Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Optik 67, 223 (1984).

Poon, T. C.

Rhodes, W. T.

J. N. Mait, W. T. Rhodes, “Iterative Design of Pupil Functions for Bipolar Incoherent Spatial Filtering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 292, 66 (1981).

A. W. Lohmann, W. T. Rhodes, “Two-Pupil Synthesis of Optical Transfer Functions,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1141 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Rhodes, “Bipolar Pointspread Function Synthesis by Phase Switching,” Appl. Opt. 16, 265 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Rhodes, “Phase-Switching Synthesis of Arbitrary Optical Transfer Functions,” in Proceedings, 1976 International Optical Computing Conference, Capri, Italy, S. Horwitz, Ed. (IEEE, New York, 1977), pp. 62–64.

Rogers, G. L.

Stoner, W.

Vasiliev, A. S.

A. S. Vasiliev, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfenov, “Advances in Development and Applications of Optically Controlled Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Optik 67, 223 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (8)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (4)

Opt. Commun. (6)

B. Braunecker, R. Hauk, “Grey Level on Axis Computer Holograms for Incoherent Image Processing,” Opt. Commun. 20, 234 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. Bartelt, A. W. Lohmann, “Optical Processing of One-Dimensional Signals,” Opt. Commun. 42, 87 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, J. D. Michaelson, “Real Time Incoherent Optical-Electronic Image Subtraction,” Opt. Commun. 8, 105 (1973).
[CrossRef]

E. Marom, N. Konforti, “Low Frequency De-emphasis of the Modulation Transfer Function,” Opt. Commun. 41, 388 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Dashiell, A. W. Lohmann, “Image Subtraction by Polarization-shifted Periodic Carrier,” Opt. Commun. 8, 100 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Gorlitz, F. Lanzl, “Methods of Zero-order Non-coherent Filtering,” Opt. Commun. 20, 68 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. Indebetouw, “Non-linear/adaptive Image Processing with a Scanning Optical System,” Opt. Eng. 23, 73 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

G. L. Rogers, “Non-coherent Optical Processing,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 153 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. Indebetouw, “Scanning Optical Data Processor,” Opt. Laser Technol. 8, 197 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optik (1)

A. S. Vasiliev, I. N. Kompanets, A. V. Parfenov, “Advances in Development and Applications of Optically Controlled Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulators,” Optik 67, 223 (1984).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. N. Mait, W. T. Rhodes, “Iterative Design of Pupil Functions for Bipolar Incoherent Spatial Filtering,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 292, 66 (1981).

Other (2)

W. T. Rhodes, “Phase-Switching Synthesis of Arbitrary Optical Transfer Functions,” in Proceedings, 1976 International Optical Computing Conference, Capri, Italy, S. Horwitz, Ed. (IEEE, New York, 1977), pp. 62–64.

G. Hausler, A. Lohmann, “Hybrid Image Processing,” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, E. Marom, A. Friesem, E. Wiener-Avnear, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1977), p. 9–18.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup used for the two-pupil interaction synthesis of bipolar PSF with scanning illumination. AOs are Bragg acoustooptic cells. The transmitted beam is the diffracted phase shifted beam. The heterodyne signal from the detector modulates the CRT’s beam intensity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lowpass (A) and bandpass (B) filtered images of a black text on matte white background.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lowpass (A) and bandpass (B) filtered images of a small diffusely reflecting toy.

Equations (3)

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PSF = p 1 ( x ) 2 - p 2 ( x ) 2
PSF = Re [ p 1 ( x ) p 2 * ( x ) ] .
S ( t ) = p 1 ( x - x , y - y ) exp ( i ω 1 t ) + p 2 ( x - x , y - y ) exp ( i ω 2 t ) 2 R ( x , y ) d x d y ,

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