Abstract

The observed presence of important densities of U ions in our hollow-cathode discharges has prompted our laboratory to investigate in detail the different processes that are responsible for the measured U+ densities. To assess the importance of Penning-type reactions as an ionizing mechanism in our discharges, we have investigated the correlation between metastable Kr and U ii ground-state densities in the discharge glow and the decay rates of Kr metastable states in the discharge afterglow of a krypton-sustained uranium hollow-cathode discharge. From the results obtained we must conclude that when the discharge is pulsed Penning-type reactions play but a secondary role in the overall ionization of uranium. The main ionization mechanisms appear to be due to electron collisions with U atoms.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Discharge Studies of the Ne-Cu Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701 (1977).
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. M. Gorbunova, O. P. Semenova, “On the Question of the Discharge Mechanism with a Hot Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 17, 592 (1972).
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    [CrossRef]
  13. C. E. Webb, A. R. T. Smith, J. M. Green, “Optical Excitation in Charge Transfer and Penning Ionization,” J. Phys. B 3, 134 (1970).
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  14. F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
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  15. R. C. Jensen, G. J. Collins, W. R. Bennett, “Charge-Exchange Excitation and CW Oscillation in the Zinc-Ion Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 363 (1969).
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  16. A. B. Amar, R. Shuker, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Penning Ionization Spectroscopy Using the Optogalvanic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 763 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. McNeil, W. L. Johnson, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Ultraviolet Laser Action in He–Ag and Ne–Ag Mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 172 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Shay, H. Kano, S. Hattori, G. J. Collins, “Time-Resolved Double-Probe Study in a He–Hg Afterglow Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4449 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Ohebsian, N. Sadeghi, C. Trassy, J. M. Mermet, “Kinetic Reactions Involving the Titanium Atoms in an Argon-Titanium Hollow-Cathode Afterglow,” Opt. Commun. 32, 81 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Gagne, P. Pianarosa, G. Larin, J. P. Saint-Dizier, P. Bouchard, “Ionization and Excitation of Uranium in a Hollow-Cathode Lamp,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3770 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. Pianarosa, P. Bouchard, J. P. Saint-Dizier, J. M. Gagne, “Density of Uranium Ions in the ⁴I9/20 Ground State in a Hollow-Cathode Type Discharge,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1568 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. M. Gagne, M. Carleer, B. Leblanc, Y. Demers, B. Mongeau, “Generateur de vapeur d’uranium: la lampe a cathode creuse pulsee,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2107 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. M. Gagne, B. Mongeau, B. Leblanc, J. P. Saint-Dizier, P. Pianarosa, L. Bertrand, “Production de vapeur d’uranium par pulverisation cathodique dans une cathode creuse: efficacites relatives des gaz Ne, Ar, Kr et concentration a l’etat ⁵L60,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2507 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. B. Leblanc, M. Carleer, Y. Demers, J. M. Gagne, “Deformations du profil du coefficient d’absorption de la raie 5915 Å UI dans un generateur de vapeur a cathode creuse pulsee,” Appl. Opt. 19, 463 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. C. G. Mitchell, M. K. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge U.P., New York, 1971).
  27. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).
  28. J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, F. J. De Hoog, “Copper Ion Laser: Line Broadening Studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6183 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  29. D. S. Smith, R. Turner, “The Decay of Metastable Atoms in a Pulsed Discharge in Krypton,” Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  30. R. T. Ku, J. T. Verdeyen, B. E. Cherrington, J. G. Eden, “Decay of Krypton 1s2 and 1s3 Excited Species in the Late Afterglow,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 3123 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  31. O. P. Bochkova, A. Tolmachev, “Collisions of the Second Kind in the Afterglow of the Positive Column of a Mercury-Krypton Discharge,” Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 187 (1968).

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

P. B. Farnsworth, J. P. Walters, “Excitation Processes in a R.F.-Boosted, Pulsed Hollow-Cathode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 37, 773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

A. B. Amar, R. Shuker, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Penning Ionization Spectroscopy Using the Optogalvanic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 763 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gagne, P. Pianarosa, G. Larin, J. P. Saint-Dizier, P. Bouchard, “Ionization and Excitation of Uranium in a Hollow-Cathode Lamp,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3770 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (2)

B. Leblanc, M. Carleer, Y. Demers, J. M. Gagne, “Deformations du profil du coefficient d’absorption de la raie 5915 Å UI dans un generateur de vapeur a cathode creuse pulsee,” Appl. Opt. 19, 463 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ohebsian, N. Sadeghi, C. Trassy, J. M. Mermet, “Kinetic Reactions Involving the Titanium Atoms in an Argon-Titanium Hollow-Cathode Afterglow,” Opt. Commun. 32, 81 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (3)

K. C. Smyth, B. L. Bentz, C. G. Bruhn, H. W. Harrison, “The Role of Penning Ionization in the Minor Species in a Neon Hollow-Cathode Discharge,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Gagne, M. Carleer, B. Leblanc, Y. Demers, B. Mongeau, “Generateur de vapeur d’uranium: la lampe a cathode creuse pulsee,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2107 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, F. J. De Hoog, “Copper Ion Laser: Line Broadening Studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (3)

J. M. Gagne, B. Mongeau, B. Leblanc, J. P. Saint-Dizier, P. Pianarosa, L. Bertrand, “Production de vapeur d’uranium par pulverisation cathodique dans une cathode creuse: efficacites relatives des gaz Ne, Ar, Kr et concentration a l’etat ⁵L60,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2507 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mori, M. Murayama, T. Goto, S. Hattori, “Excitation Mechanism of the Cd (ii) 441.6 nm Laser in the Positive Column He–Cd Discharge,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

T. Shay, H. Kano, S. Hattori, G. J. Collins, “Time-Resolved Double-Probe Study in a He–Hg Afterglow Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4449 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Discharge Studies of the Ne-Cu Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. R. McNeil, W. L. Johnson, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Ultraviolet Laser Action in He–Ag and Ne–Ag Mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

E. A. Zakarov, B. F. Myasoedov, P. I. Ozhegov, A. V. Karyakin, “On the Quenching of Excited Metal Atoms in an Uncooled Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 21, 21 (1974).

1973 (1)

R. T. Ku, J. T. Verdeyen, B. E. Cherrington, J. G. Eden, “Decay of Krypton 1s2 and 1s3 Excited Species in the Late Afterglow,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 3123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

T. M. Gorbunova, O. P. Semenova, “On the Question of the Discharge Mechanism with a Hot Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 17, 592 (1972).

1970 (1)

C. E. Webb, A. R. T. Smith, J. M. Green, “Optical Excitation in Charge Transfer and Penning Ionization,” J. Phys. B 3, 134 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. C. Jensen, G. J. Collins, W. R. Bennett, “Charge-Exchange Excitation and CW Oscillation in the Zinc-Ion Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

O. P. Bochkova, A. Tolmachev, “Collisions of the Second Kind in the Afterglow of the Positive Column of a Mercury-Krypton Discharge,” Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 187 (1968).

1966 (2)

F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sturges, H. J. Oskam, “Hollow-Cathode Glow Discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2405 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

J. R. Woodyard, C. B. Cooper, “Mass Spectrometric Study of Neutral Particles Sputtered by Cu from 0- to 100-eV Ar Ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1107 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

D. S. Smith, R. Turner, “The Decay of Metastable Atoms in a Pulsed Discharge in Krypton,” Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

1955 (2)

1954 (1)

P. F. Little, A. von Engel, “The Hollow-Cathode and the Theory of Glow Discharges,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 224, 209 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Amar, A. B.

A. B. Amar, R. Shuker, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Penning Ionization Spectroscopy Using the Optogalvanic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 763 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, W. R.

R. C. Jensen, G. J. Collins, W. R. Bennett, “Charge-Exchange Excitation and CW Oscillation in the Zinc-Ion Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bentz, B. L.

K. C. Smyth, B. L. Bentz, C. G. Bruhn, H. W. Harrison, “The Role of Penning Ionization in the Minor Species in a Neon Hollow-Cathode Discharge,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, L.

Bochkova, O. P.

O. P. Bochkova, A. Tolmachev, “Collisions of the Second Kind in the Afterglow of the Positive Column of a Mercury-Krypton Discharge,” Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 187 (1968).

Bouchard, P.

Bruhn, C. G.

K. C. Smyth, B. L. Bentz, C. G. Bruhn, H. W. Harrison, “The Role of Penning Ionization in the Minor Species in a Neon Hollow-Cathode Discharge,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Butterfield, K. B.

K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

Cherrington, B. E.

R. T. Ku, J. T. Verdeyen, B. E. Cherrington, J. G. Eden, “Decay of Krypton 1s2 and 1s3 Excited Species in the Late Afterglow,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 3123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Collins, G. J.

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, F. J. De Hoog, “Copper Ion Laser: Line Broadening Studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Shay, H. Kano, S. Hattori, G. J. Collins, “Time-Resolved Double-Probe Study in a He–Hg Afterglow Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4449 (1977).
[CrossRef]

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Discharge Studies of the Ne-Cu Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, W. L. Johnson, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Ultraviolet Laser Action in He–Ag and Ne–Ag Mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Jensen, G. J. Collins, W. R. Bennett, “Charge-Exchange Excitation and CW Oscillation in the Zinc-Ion Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, C. B.

J. R. Woodyard, C. B. Cooper, “Mass Spectrometric Study of Neutral Particles Sputtered by Cu from 0- to 100-eV Ar Ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1107 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Crosswhite, H. M.

De Hoog, F. J.

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, F. J. De Hoog, “Copper Ion Laser: Line Broadening Studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Discharge Studies of the Ne-Cu Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Demers, Y.

Dieke, G. H.

Eden, J. G.

R. T. Ku, J. T. Verdeyen, B. E. Cherrington, J. G. Eden, “Decay of Krypton 1s2 and 1s3 Excited Species in the Late Afterglow,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 3123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Erez, G.

A. B. Amar, R. Shuker, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Penning Ionization Spectroscopy Using the Optogalvanic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 763 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Farnsworth, P. B.

P. B. Farnsworth, J. P. Walters, “Excitation Processes in a R.F.-Boosted, Pulsed Hollow-Cathode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 37, 773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Fehsenfeld, F. C.

F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, E. F.

F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gagne, J. M.

Gerstenberger, D. C.

K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Goldan, P. D.

F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunova, T. M.

T. M. Gorbunova, O. P. Semenova, “On the Question of the Discharge Mechanism with a Hot Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 17, 592 (1972).

Goto, T.

M. Mori, M. Murayama, T. Goto, S. Hattori, “Excitation Mechanism of the Cd (ii) 441.6 nm Laser in the Positive Column He–Cd Discharge,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Green, J. M.

C. E. Webb, A. R. T. Smith, J. M. Green, “Optical Excitation in Charge Transfer and Penning Ionization,” J. Phys. B 3, 134 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

Harrison, H. W.

K. C. Smyth, B. L. Bentz, C. G. Bruhn, H. W. Harrison, “The Role of Penning Ionization in the Minor Species in a Neon Hollow-Cathode Discharge,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, S.

M. Mori, M. Murayama, T. Goto, S. Hattori, “Excitation Mechanism of the Cd (ii) 441.6 nm Laser in the Positive Column He–Cd Discharge,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Shay, H. Kano, S. Hattori, G. J. Collins, “Time-Resolved Double-Probe Study in a He–Hg Afterglow Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4449 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, R. C.

R. C. Jensen, G. J. Collins, W. R. Bennett, “Charge-Exchange Excitation and CW Oscillation in the Zinc-Ion Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, W. L.

J. R. McNeil, W. L. Johnson, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Ultraviolet Laser Action in He–Ag and Ne–Ag Mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kano, H.

T. Shay, H. Kano, S. Hattori, G. J. Collins, “Time-Resolved Double-Probe Study in a He–Hg Afterglow Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4449 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Karyakin, A. V.

E. A. Zakarov, B. F. Myasoedov, P. I. Ozhegov, A. V. Karyakin, “On the Quenching of Excited Metal Atoms in an Uncooled Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 21, 21 (1974).

Ku, R. T.

R. T. Ku, J. T. Verdeyen, B. E. Cherrington, J. G. Eden, “Decay of Krypton 1s2 and 1s3 Excited Species in the Late Afterglow,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 3123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Larin, G.

Leblanc, B.

Legagneur, C. S.

Little, P. F.

P. F. Little, A. von Engel, “The Hollow-Cathode and the Theory of Glow Discharges,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 224, 209 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Little, W. L.

K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McNeil, J. R.

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, F. J. De Hoog, “Copper Ion Laser: Line Broadening Studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Discharge Studies of the Ne-Cu Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, W. L. Johnson, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Ultraviolet Laser Action in He–Ag and Ne–Ag Mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mermet, J. M.

D. Ohebsian, N. Sadeghi, C. Trassy, J. M. Mermet, “Kinetic Reactions Involving the Titanium Atoms in an Argon-Titanium Hollow-Cathode Afterglow,” Opt. Commun. 32, 81 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Miron, E.

A. B. Amar, R. Shuker, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Penning Ionization Spectroscopy Using the Optogalvanic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 763 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A. C. G.

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. K. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge U.P., New York, 1971).

Mitchell, K. B.

Mongeau, B.

Mori, M.

M. Mori, M. Murayama, T. Goto, S. Hattori, “Excitation Mechanism of the Cd (ii) 441.6 nm Laser in the Positive Column He–Cd Discharge,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Murayama, M.

M. Mori, M. Murayama, T. Goto, S. Hattori, “Excitation Mechanism of the Cd (ii) 441.6 nm Laser in the Positive Column He–Cd Discharge,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Myasoedov, B. F.

E. A. Zakarov, B. F. Myasoedov, P. I. Ozhegov, A. V. Karyakin, “On the Quenching of Excited Metal Atoms in an Uncooled Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 21, 21 (1974).

Ohebsian, D.

D. Ohebsian, N. Sadeghi, C. Trassy, J. M. Mermet, “Kinetic Reactions Involving the Titanium Atoms in an Argon-Titanium Hollow-Cathode Afterglow,” Opt. Commun. 32, 81 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Oskam, H. J.

D. J. Sturges, H. J. Oskam, “Hollow-Cathode Glow Discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2405 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ozhegov, P. I.

E. A. Zakarov, B. F. Myasoedov, P. I. Ozhegov, A. V. Karyakin, “On the Quenching of Excited Metal Atoms in an Uncooled Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 21, 21 (1974).

Persson, K. B.

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Discharge Studies of the Ne-Cu Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, W. L. Johnson, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Ultraviolet Laser Action in He–Ag and Ne–Ag Mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Pianarosa, P.

Sadeghi, N.

D. Ohebsian, N. Sadeghi, C. Trassy, J. M. Mermet, “Kinetic Reactions Involving the Titanium Atoms in an Argon-Titanium Hollow-Cathode Afterglow,” Opt. Commun. 32, 81 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Saint-Dizier, J. P.

Schiff, H. I.

F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Schmeltekopf, A. L.

F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, O. P.

T. M. Gorbunova, O. P. Semenova, “On the Question of the Discharge Mechanism with a Hot Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 17, 592 (1972).

Shay, T.

K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Shay, H. Kano, S. Hattori, G. J. Collins, “Time-Resolved Double-Probe Study in a He–Hg Afterglow Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4449 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Shuker, R.

A. B. Amar, R. Shuker, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Penning Ionization Spectroscopy Using the Optogalvanic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 763 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Smith, A. R. T.

C. E. Webb, A. R. T. Smith, J. M. Green, “Optical Excitation in Charge Transfer and Penning Ionization,” J. Phys. B 3, 134 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. S.

D. S. Smith, R. Turner, “The Decay of Metastable Atoms in a Pulsed Discharge in Krypton,” Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, K. C.

K. C. Smyth, B. L. Bentz, C. G. Bruhn, H. W. Harrison, “The Role of Penning Ionization in the Minor Species in a Neon Hollow-Cathode Discharge,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sturges, D. J.

D. J. Sturges, H. J. Oskam, “Hollow-Cathode Glow Discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2405 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tolmachev, A.

O. P. Bochkova, A. Tolmachev, “Collisions of the Second Kind in the Afterglow of the Positive Column of a Mercury-Krypton Discharge,” Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 187 (1968).

Trassy, C.

D. Ohebsian, N. Sadeghi, C. Trassy, J. M. Mermet, “Kinetic Reactions Involving the Titanium Atoms in an Argon-Titanium Hollow-Cathode Afterglow,” Opt. Commun. 32, 81 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Turner, R.

D. S. Smith, R. Turner, “The Decay of Metastable Atoms in a Pulsed Discharge in Krypton,” Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Verdeyen, J. T.

R. T. Ku, J. T. Verdeyen, B. E. Cherrington, J. G. Eden, “Decay of Krypton 1s2 and 1s3 Excited Species in the Late Afterglow,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 3123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

von Engel, A.

P. F. Little, A. von Engel, “The Hollow-Cathode and the Theory of Glow Discharges,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 224, 209 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Walters, J. P.

P. B. Farnsworth, J. P. Walters, “Excitation Processes in a R.F.-Boosted, Pulsed Hollow-Cathode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 37, 773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Webb, C. E.

C. E. Webb, A. R. T. Smith, J. M. Green, “Optical Excitation in Charge Transfer and Penning Ionization,” J. Phys. B 3, 134 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wehner, G. K.

G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering by Ion Bombardment,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 7, 239 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Woodyard, J. R.

J. R. Woodyard, C. B. Cooper, “Mass Spectrometric Study of Neutral Particles Sputtered by Cu from 0- to 100-eV Ar Ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1107 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Zakarov, E. A.

E. A. Zakarov, B. F. Myasoedov, P. I. Ozhegov, A. V. Karyakin, “On the Quenching of Excited Metal Atoms in an Uncooled Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 21, 21 (1974).

Zemansky, M. K.

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. K. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge U.P., New York, 1971).

Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. (1)

G. K. Wehner, “Sputtering by Ion Bombardment,” Adv. Electron. Electron Phys. 7, 239 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. B. Amar, R. Shuker, G. Erez, E. Miron, “Penning Ionization Spectroscopy Using the Optogalvanic Effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 763 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, W. L. Johnson, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Ultraviolet Laser Action in He–Ag and Ne–Ag Mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 172 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

D. S. Smith, R. Turner, “The Decay of Metastable Atoms in a Pulsed Discharge in Krypton,” Can. J. Phys. 41, 1949 (1963).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Mori, M. Murayama, T. Goto, S. Hattori, “Excitation Mechanism of the Cd (ii) 441.6 nm Laser in the Positive Column He–Cd Discharge,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 427 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. C. Smyth, B. L. Bentz, C. G. Bruhn, H. W. Harrison, “The Role of Penning Ionization in the Minor Species in a Neon Hollow-Cathode Discharge,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 797 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

F. J. de Hoog, J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, K. B. Persson, “Discharge Studies of the Ne-Cu Laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3701 (1977).
[CrossRef]

T. Shay, H. Kano, S. Hattori, G. J. Collins, “Time-Resolved Double-Probe Study in a He–Hg Afterglow Plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4449 (1977).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Butterfield, D. C. Gerstenberger, T. Shay, W. L. Little, G. J. Collins, “Collisional Quenching of Xe+(2P) and He 23S Mestastables by Calcium and Strontium Metal Vapors,” J. Appl. Phys. 49, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Woodyard, C. B. Cooper, “Mass Spectrometric Study of Neutral Particles Sputtered by Cu from 0- to 100-eV Ar Ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1107 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sturges, H. J. Oskam, “Hollow-Cathode Glow Discharge,” J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2405 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. R. McNeil, G. J. Collins, F. J. De Hoog, “Copper Ion Laser: Line Broadening Studies,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 6183 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. C. Fehsenfeld, A. L. Schmeltekopf, P. D. Goldan, H. I. Schiff, E. F. Ferguson, “Thermal Energy Ion-Neutral Reaction Rates. I. Some Reactions of Helium Ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 44, 4087 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

C. E. Webb, A. R. T. Smith, J. M. Green, “Optical Excitation in Charge Transfer and Penning Ionization,” J. Phys. B 3, 134 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Ohebsian, N. Sadeghi, C. Trassy, J. M. Mermet, “Kinetic Reactions Involving the Titanium Atoms in an Argon-Titanium Hollow-Cathode Afterglow,” Opt. Commun. 32, 81 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

O. P. Bochkova, A. Tolmachev, “Collisions of the Second Kind in the Afterglow of the Positive Column of a Mercury-Krypton Discharge,” Opt. Spectrosc. 25, 187 (1968).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

R. T. Ku, J. T. Verdeyen, B. E. Cherrington, J. G. Eden, “Decay of Krypton 1s2 and 1s3 Excited Species in the Late Afterglow,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 3123 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. C. Jensen, G. J. Collins, W. R. Bennett, “Charge-Exchange Excitation and CW Oscillation in the Zinc-Ion Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 363 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

P. F. Little, A. von Engel, “The Hollow-Cathode and the Theory of Glow Discharges,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 224, 209 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B (1)

P. B. Farnsworth, J. P. Walters, “Excitation Processes in a R.F.-Boosted, Pulsed Hollow-Cathode,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B 37, 773 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. (2)

T. M. Gorbunova, O. P. Semenova, “On the Question of the Discharge Mechanism with a Hot Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 17, 592 (1972).

E. A. Zakarov, B. F. Myasoedov, P. I. Ozhegov, A. V. Karyakin, “On the Quenching of Excited Metal Atoms in an Uncooled Hollow-Cathode,” Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 21, 21 (1974).

Other (2)

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. K. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge U.P., New York, 1971).

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser spectrometer for absorption measurements: BS, beam splitter; M, mirror; PD1,PD2, photodiodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectrometer for emission measurements: PM, photomultiplier.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Density of some metastable (1s5) and pseudometastable (1s4) levels of Ne and Kr vs current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Density of atoms vs pressure. [U i, U ii, and Kr (1s5) densities have been obtained in absorption. The Kr (2p3) relative density has been obtained in emission.]

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative time evolution of particle density during the discharge.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Metastable atom relaxation rates (1/τ) and U i density vs pressure: (a) our values; (b) values deduced from Ref. 29; (c) values obtained from Ref. 30.

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M + e - M + + 2 e - ;
M + B + B + ( M + ) * ;
M + B m B + ( M + ) * + e - .
k ( ν ) d ν = λ 0 2 g n A n m N m 8 π g m .
k ( ν 0 , t ) = 2 ( ln 2 ) 1 / 2 λ 0 2 g n A n m N m ( t ) Δ ν D 8 π 3 / 2 g m .
Δ ν D = 2.1477 × 10 11 T 1 / 2 λ 0 M 1 / 2 ,
I n m d λ = 2 π h c 2 r 0 f n m g m N n d x λ n m 3 g n ,
N n I n m d λ .

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