Abstract

A technique for measuring nonintrusively, and in real time, the size and velocity of droplets in a spray is presented. A small beam identifies the center of a larger beam, thus defining a region of almost uniform intensity, and only droplets crossing through such a center are measured. The size is obtained from the absolute scattered light and the velocity from the modulated signal produced by the interferometric pattern. A self-calibrating algorithm is also discussed. Results are presented for a spray of predictable characteristics.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. J. Yule, N. A. Chigier, S. Atakan, A. Ungut, “Particle Size and Velocity Measurement by Laser Anemometry,” J. Energy 1, 220 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Holve, S. A. Self, “Optical Particle Sizing for In Situ Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1632 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Mizutani, H. Kodama, K. Miyasaka, “Doppler-Mie Combination Technique for Determination of Size-Velocity Correlation of Spray Droplets,” Combust. Flame 44, 85 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Men, Y. Krimerman, D. Adler, “A New Method of Simultaneous Particle Sizing and Two-Component Velocity Measurement,” J. Phys. E. 14, 747 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. R. Ereaut, A. Ungut, A. J. Yule, N. Chigier, “Measurement of Drop Size and Velocity in Vaporizing Sprays,” in Proceedings, Second International Conference of Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Madison, Wisc. (20–24 June 1982), p. 261.
  6. W. J. Glantschnig, M. W. Golay, S.-H. Chen, F. R. Best, “Light Scattering Device for Sizing and Velocimetry of Large Droplets Utilizing a Ring-Shaped Laser Beam,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2456 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. L. Yeoman, B. J. Azzopardi, H. J. White, C. J. Bates, P. J. Roberts, “Optical Development and Application of a Two Color LDA System for the Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Size and Particle Velocity,” in Engineering Applications of Laser Velocimetry, Winter Annual Meeting ASME, Phoenix, Ariz., 14–19 Nov. 1982.
  8. C. F. Hess, “A Technique Combining the Visibility of a Doppler Signal with a Peak Intensity of the Pedestal to Measure the Size and Velocity of Droplets in a Spray,” in AIAA Twenty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 84-0203, Reno, Nev., 9–12 Jan. 1984.
  9. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), Chap. 12.
  10. D. W. Roberts, C. W. Brasier, B. W. Bomar, “Use of a Particle Sizing Interferometer to Study Water Droplet Size Distribution,” Opt. Eng. 18, No. 3, 236 (1979).
  11. B. Y. H. Liu, R. N. Berglund, T. K. Argawal, “Experimental Studies of Optical Particle Counters,” Atmos. Environ. 18, 717 (1974).

1982

Y. Mizutani, H. Kodama, K. Miyasaka, “Doppler-Mie Combination Technique for Determination of Size-Velocity Correlation of Spray Droplets,” Combust. Flame 44, 85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Glantschnig, M. W. Golay, S.-H. Chen, F. R. Best, “Light Scattering Device for Sizing and Velocimetry of Large Droplets Utilizing a Ring-Shaped Laser Beam,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2456 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

A. Men, Y. Krimerman, D. Adler, “A New Method of Simultaneous Particle Sizing and Two-Component Velocity Measurement,” J. Phys. E. 14, 747 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

D. W. Roberts, C. W. Brasier, B. W. Bomar, “Use of a Particle Sizing Interferometer to Study Water Droplet Size Distribution,” Opt. Eng. 18, No. 3, 236 (1979).

D. Holve, S. A. Self, “Optical Particle Sizing for In Situ Measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1632 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

A. J. Yule, N. A. Chigier, S. Atakan, A. Ungut, “Particle Size and Velocity Measurement by Laser Anemometry,” J. Energy 1, 220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974

B. Y. H. Liu, R. N. Berglund, T. K. Argawal, “Experimental Studies of Optical Particle Counters,” Atmos. Environ. 18, 717 (1974).

Adler, D.

A. Men, Y. Krimerman, D. Adler, “A New Method of Simultaneous Particle Sizing and Two-Component Velocity Measurement,” J. Phys. E. 14, 747 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Argawal, T. K.

B. Y. H. Liu, R. N. Berglund, T. K. Argawal, “Experimental Studies of Optical Particle Counters,” Atmos. Environ. 18, 717 (1974).

Atakan, S.

A. J. Yule, N. A. Chigier, S. Atakan, A. Ungut, “Particle Size and Velocity Measurement by Laser Anemometry,” J. Energy 1, 220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Azzopardi, B. J.

M. L. Yeoman, B. J. Azzopardi, H. J. White, C. J. Bates, P. J. Roberts, “Optical Development and Application of a Two Color LDA System for the Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Size and Particle Velocity,” in Engineering Applications of Laser Velocimetry, Winter Annual Meeting ASME, Phoenix, Ariz., 14–19 Nov. 1982.

Bates, C. J.

M. L. Yeoman, B. J. Azzopardi, H. J. White, C. J. Bates, P. J. Roberts, “Optical Development and Application of a Two Color LDA System for the Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Size and Particle Velocity,” in Engineering Applications of Laser Velocimetry, Winter Annual Meeting ASME, Phoenix, Ariz., 14–19 Nov. 1982.

Berglund, R. N.

B. Y. H. Liu, R. N. Berglund, T. K. Argawal, “Experimental Studies of Optical Particle Counters,” Atmos. Environ. 18, 717 (1974).

Best, F. R.

Bomar, B. W.

D. W. Roberts, C. W. Brasier, B. W. Bomar, “Use of a Particle Sizing Interferometer to Study Water Droplet Size Distribution,” Opt. Eng. 18, No. 3, 236 (1979).

Brasier, C. W.

D. W. Roberts, C. W. Brasier, B. W. Bomar, “Use of a Particle Sizing Interferometer to Study Water Droplet Size Distribution,” Opt. Eng. 18, No. 3, 236 (1979).

Chen, S.-H.

Chigier, N.

P. R. Ereaut, A. Ungut, A. J. Yule, N. Chigier, “Measurement of Drop Size and Velocity in Vaporizing Sprays,” in Proceedings, Second International Conference of Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Madison, Wisc. (20–24 June 1982), p. 261.

Chigier, N. A.

A. J. Yule, N. A. Chigier, S. Atakan, A. Ungut, “Particle Size and Velocity Measurement by Laser Anemometry,” J. Energy 1, 220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Ereaut, P. R.

P. R. Ereaut, A. Ungut, A. J. Yule, N. Chigier, “Measurement of Drop Size and Velocity in Vaporizing Sprays,” in Proceedings, Second International Conference of Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Madison, Wisc. (20–24 June 1982), p. 261.

Glantschnig, W. J.

Golay, M. W.

Hess, C. F.

C. F. Hess, “A Technique Combining the Visibility of a Doppler Signal with a Peak Intensity of the Pedestal to Measure the Size and Velocity of Droplets in a Spray,” in AIAA Twenty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 84-0203, Reno, Nev., 9–12 Jan. 1984.

Holve, D.

Kodama, H.

Y. Mizutani, H. Kodama, K. Miyasaka, “Doppler-Mie Combination Technique for Determination of Size-Velocity Correlation of Spray Droplets,” Combust. Flame 44, 85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Krimerman, Y.

A. Men, Y. Krimerman, D. Adler, “A New Method of Simultaneous Particle Sizing and Two-Component Velocity Measurement,” J. Phys. E. 14, 747 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B. Y. H.

B. Y. H. Liu, R. N. Berglund, T. K. Argawal, “Experimental Studies of Optical Particle Counters,” Atmos. Environ. 18, 717 (1974).

Men, A.

A. Men, Y. Krimerman, D. Adler, “A New Method of Simultaneous Particle Sizing and Two-Component Velocity Measurement,” J. Phys. E. 14, 747 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miyasaka, K.

Y. Mizutani, H. Kodama, K. Miyasaka, “Doppler-Mie Combination Technique for Determination of Size-Velocity Correlation of Spray Droplets,” Combust. Flame 44, 85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, Y.

Y. Mizutani, H. Kodama, K. Miyasaka, “Doppler-Mie Combination Technique for Determination of Size-Velocity Correlation of Spray Droplets,” Combust. Flame 44, 85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, D. W.

D. W. Roberts, C. W. Brasier, B. W. Bomar, “Use of a Particle Sizing Interferometer to Study Water Droplet Size Distribution,” Opt. Eng. 18, No. 3, 236 (1979).

Roberts, P. J.

M. L. Yeoman, B. J. Azzopardi, H. J. White, C. J. Bates, P. J. Roberts, “Optical Development and Application of a Two Color LDA System for the Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Size and Particle Velocity,” in Engineering Applications of Laser Velocimetry, Winter Annual Meeting ASME, Phoenix, Ariz., 14–19 Nov. 1982.

Self, S. A.

Ungut, A.

A. J. Yule, N. A. Chigier, S. Atakan, A. Ungut, “Particle Size and Velocity Measurement by Laser Anemometry,” J. Energy 1, 220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Ereaut, A. Ungut, A. J. Yule, N. Chigier, “Measurement of Drop Size and Velocity in Vaporizing Sprays,” in Proceedings, Second International Conference of Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Madison, Wisc. (20–24 June 1982), p. 261.

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), Chap. 12.

White, H. J.

M. L. Yeoman, B. J. Azzopardi, H. J. White, C. J. Bates, P. J. Roberts, “Optical Development and Application of a Two Color LDA System for the Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Size and Particle Velocity,” in Engineering Applications of Laser Velocimetry, Winter Annual Meeting ASME, Phoenix, Ariz., 14–19 Nov. 1982.

Yeoman, M. L.

M. L. Yeoman, B. J. Azzopardi, H. J. White, C. J. Bates, P. J. Roberts, “Optical Development and Application of a Two Color LDA System for the Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Size and Particle Velocity,” in Engineering Applications of Laser Velocimetry, Winter Annual Meeting ASME, Phoenix, Ariz., 14–19 Nov. 1982.

Yule, A. J.

A. J. Yule, N. A. Chigier, S. Atakan, A. Ungut, “Particle Size and Velocity Measurement by Laser Anemometry,” J. Energy 1, 220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Ereaut, A. Ungut, A. J. Yule, N. Chigier, “Measurement of Drop Size and Velocity in Vaporizing Sprays,” in Proceedings, Second International Conference of Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Madison, Wisc. (20–24 June 1982), p. 261.

Appl. Opt.

Atmos. Environ.

B. Y. H. Liu, R. N. Berglund, T. K. Argawal, “Experimental Studies of Optical Particle Counters,” Atmos. Environ. 18, 717 (1974).

Combust. Flame

Y. Mizutani, H. Kodama, K. Miyasaka, “Doppler-Mie Combination Technique for Determination of Size-Velocity Correlation of Spray Droplets,” Combust. Flame 44, 85 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Energy

A. J. Yule, N. A. Chigier, S. Atakan, A. Ungut, “Particle Size and Velocity Measurement by Laser Anemometry,” J. Energy 1, 220 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E.

A. Men, Y. Krimerman, D. Adler, “A New Method of Simultaneous Particle Sizing and Two-Component Velocity Measurement,” J. Phys. E. 14, 747 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

D. W. Roberts, C. W. Brasier, B. W. Bomar, “Use of a Particle Sizing Interferometer to Study Water Droplet Size Distribution,” Opt. Eng. 18, No. 3, 236 (1979).

Other

P. R. Ereaut, A. Ungut, A. J. Yule, N. Chigier, “Measurement of Drop Size and Velocity in Vaporizing Sprays,” in Proceedings, Second International Conference of Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Madison, Wisc. (20–24 June 1982), p. 261.

M. L. Yeoman, B. J. Azzopardi, H. J. White, C. J. Bates, P. J. Roberts, “Optical Development and Application of a Two Color LDA System for the Simultaneous Measurement of Particle Size and Particle Velocity,” in Engineering Applications of Laser Velocimetry, Winter Annual Meeting ASME, Phoenix, Ariz., 14–19 Nov. 1982.

C. F. Hess, “A Technique Combining the Visibility of a Doppler Signal with a Peak Intensity of the Pedestal to Measure the Size and Velocity of Droplets in a Spray,” in AIAA Twenty-Second Aerospace Sciences Meeting, 84-0203, Reno, Nev., 9–12 Jan. 1984.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1957), Chap. 12.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Probe volume of two-color Imax technique.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probe volume of single-color Imax technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of dual-beam probe volume limited by a pinhole.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic Imax breadboard system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Oscilloscope trace of signals produced by a monodisperse string of droplets.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Electronic block diagram of the droplet sizing two-color technique.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Imax measurements of a string of monodisperse droplets.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Imax droplet size measurements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect of beam blockage on size distribution.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Maximum Error In the Size Determination as a Function of Beam Ratio m and Measured Dynamic Size Range (dmax/dmin)

Tables Icon

Table II Maximum Error in the Size Determination as a Function of Beam Ratio m and Measured Dynamic Size Range (dmax/dmin)

Equations (33)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I 1 = 2 I 0 1 exp [ ( - 2 b 0 1 2 ) + cos 4 π x sin ( γ / 2 ) λ ] · [ cosh ( 2 x z γ b 0 1 2 ) + cos 4 π x sin ( γ / 2 ) λ ] ,
I 2 = I 0 2 exp [ - 2 b 0 2 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
I s 1 = 2 I 0 1 K 0 1 d 2 exp [ ( - 2 b 0 1 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ( 1 + cos 2 π γ x λ · V ) ,
I s 2 = I 0 2 K 0 2 d 2 exp [ ( - 2 b 0 2 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
K 0 = 1 4 r 2 A lens { [ ɛ 2 ( θ , n ) D ( θ ) ] refraction + [ ɛ 2 ( θ , n ) D ( θ ) ] refraction + [ J 1 2 ( α sin θ ) sin 2 θ ] diff } d A .
i D = α 2 sin 2 θ J 1 2 ( α sin θ ) ,
i ( refraction ) = 1.0375 α 2 , i ( reflection ) = 0.0785 α 2 ,
I ac 1 = 4 I 0 1 K 0 1 V d 2 exp [ ( - 2 b 0 1 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
p 1 = 2 I 0 1 K 0 1 d 2 exp [ ( - 2 b 0 1 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] .
I ac min = 4 I 0 1 K 0 1 d 0 2 V 0 exp [ ( - 2 b 0 1 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] .
4 I 0 1 K 0 1 d 0 2 exp [ ( - 2 b 0 1 2 ) ( b 0 2 + y 2 ) ] = 4 I 0 1 K 0 1 d min 2 exp ( - 2 ) .
( d 0 d min ) 2 = exp ( - 2 ) V 0 exp [ 2 ( b 0 1 2 + y 2 ) b 0 1 2 ] = 1 V 0 exp ( 2 y 2 b 0 1 2 ) , 2 y 2 = b 0 1 2 ln [ ( d 0 d min ) 2 V 0 exp ( - 2 ) ] - 2 b 0 1 2 ,
2 y 2 = b 0 1 2 ln [ V 0 ( d 0 d min ) 2 ] .
I s 2 I 0 2 K 0 2 d 2 = exp ( - 2 y 2 m 2 b 0 1 2 ) .
2 y 2 b 0 1 2 = ln [ 0.1685 ( d max d min ) 2 ] .
I 1 = I 0 1 exp [ - 2 b 0 1 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
I 2 = I 0 2 exp [ - 2 b 0 2 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] .
I s = I s 1 + I s 2 + 2 I s 1 I s 2 cos β · V ,
I ac = 2 I s 1 I s 2 V ( cos β = 1 ) - 2 I s 1 I s 2 V ( cos β = - 1 ) = 4 I s 1 I s 2 V ,
P = I 0 1 K 0 d 2 exp [ - 2 b 0 2 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] + I 0 2 K 0 d 2 × exp [ - 2 b 0 2 2 ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
I ac = 4 K 0 I 0 1 I 0 2 d 2 V exp [ - ( x 2 + y 2 ) b 0 1 2 - ( x 2 + y 2 ) b 0 2 2 ] ,
I ac min = 4 K 0 I 0 1 I 0 2 d min 2 exp ( - 1 - 1 m 2 ) ,
I ac max = 4 K 0 I 0 1 I 0 2 d 0 2 V 0 exp [ - ( b 0 1 2 + y 2 ) b 0 1 2 - ( b 0 1 2 + y 2 ) m 2 b 0 1 2 ] .
y 2 = m 2 b 0 1 2 m 2 + 1 ln ( d 0 2 V 0 d min 2 ) .
I s 2 I 0 2 K 0 d 2 = exp ( - 2 y 2 m 2 b 0 1 2 ) .
2 y 2 m 2 b 0 1 2 = 2 m 2 + 1 ln [ 0.1685 ( d max d min ) 2 ] .
I peak 1 = 2 I 0 1 K 0 1 d 0 2 ( 1 + V 0 ) I max ,
I 0 1 = I max 2 K 0 1 d 0 2 ( 1 + V 0 ) .
I ac 1 = 2 d 2 V I max d 0 2 ( 1 + V 0 ) exp [ ( - 2 b 0 1 2 ) ( x 2 + y 2 ) ] ,
y - b 0 1 2 2 ln [ I min 2 I max ( d 0 d ) 2 ( 1 + V 0 ) V ] - b 0 1 2 .
A ( d ) = 2 D b y sin θ · f 1 f 2 ,
T = T S - i = 1 M N τ D i - M τ 0 ,
N D ( d ) = N ( d ) A ( d ) U ( d ) T ,

Metrics