Abstract

A new organic material for polarization holographic recording—azo-dye methyl-orange, introduced in poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA)—is fabricated and investigated. It possesses all the good characteristics of the known polarization-sensitive materials—high sensitivity, reversibility, etc.—but excels them substantially in the magnitude of the photoinduced birefringence: δn > 10−3. This makes possible the recording of reversible polarization gratings with diffraction efficiency over 30%. Depending on the conditions of production and subsequent mechanical and thermal treatments the layers of methyl orange/PVA may also have intrinsic birefringence. In this paper the results of experimental investigations into the properties of this new material are reported.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. Sh. D. Kakichashvili, “Method of Recording Phase Polarization Holograms,” Kvantovaya Elektron. Moscow 1, 1435 (1974).
  2. H. Blume, L. Bader, F. Loty, “Bi-Directional Holographic Information Storage Based on the Optical Reorientation of FA Centers in KCl:Na,” Opt. Commun. 12, 147 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, P. Stefanova, “Polarization Sensibility of the Photodichroic Holographic Recording,” Opt. Commun. 24, 44 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. F. Borelli, J. B. Chodak, G. B. Hares, “Optically Induced Anisotropy in Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5978 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two-Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Shankoff, “Recording Holograms in Luminescent Materials,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2282 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photochromism and Dinamic Holographic Recording in a Rigid Solution of Fluorescein,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 209 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photoinduced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).
  10. L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, “Diffraction Efficiency and Selectivity of Polarization Holographic Recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 529 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, O. V. Stolbova, “Reversible Photodictioism and Photoisomerization of Complex Organic Molecules,” Opt. Spektrosk. 31, 741 (1971).
  12. C. A. Finch, Ed., Polyvinyl Alcohol, Properties and Applications (Wiley, London, 1973).
  13. T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials With and Without Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985).

1985 (1)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials With and Without Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985).

1984 (1)

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, “Diffraction Efficiency and Selectivity of Polarization Holographic Recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 529 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photoinduced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

1981 (1)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photochromism and Dinamic Holographic Recording in a Rigid Solution of Fluorescein,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

N. F. Borelli, J. B. Chodak, G. B. Hares, “Optically Induced Anisotropy in Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5978 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two-Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, P. Stefanova, “Polarization Sensibility of the Photodichroic Holographic Recording,” Opt. Commun. 24, 44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

Sh. D. Kakichashvili, “Method of Recording Phase Polarization Holograms,” Kvantovaya Elektron. Moscow 1, 1435 (1974).

H. Blume, L. Bader, F. Loty, “Bi-Directional Holographic Information Storage Based on the Optical Reorientation of FA Centers in KCl:Na,” Opt. Commun. 12, 147 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, O. V. Stolbova, “Reversible Photodictioism and Photoisomerization of Complex Organic Molecules,” Opt. Spektrosk. 31, 741 (1971).

1969 (1)

Bader, L.

H. Blume, L. Bader, F. Loty, “Bi-Directional Holographic Information Storage Based on the Optical Reorientation of FA Centers in KCl:Na,” Opt. Commun. 12, 147 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Blume, H.

H. Blume, L. Bader, F. Loty, “Bi-Directional Holographic Information Storage Based on the Optical Reorientation of FA Centers in KCl:Na,” Opt. Commun. 12, 147 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Borelli, N. F.

N. F. Borelli, J. B. Chodak, G. B. Hares, “Optically Induced Anisotropy in Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5978 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burikin, N. M.

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

Chodak, J. B.

N. F. Borelli, J. B. Chodak, G. B. Hares, “Optically Induced Anisotropy in Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5978 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dragostinova, V.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photochromism and Dinamic Holographic Recording in a Rigid Solution of Fluorescein,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dyukova, T. V.

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

Hares, G. B.

N. F. Borelli, J. B. Chodak, G. B. Hares, “Optically Induced Anisotropy in Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5978 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two-Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kakichashvili, Sh. D.

Sh. D. Kakichashvili, “Method of Recording Phase Polarization Holograms,” Kvantovaya Elektron. Moscow 1, 1435 (1974).

Kor-chemskaya, E. Y.

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

Loty, F.

H. Blume, L. Bader, F. Loty, “Bi-Directional Holographic Information Storage Based on the Optical Reorientation of FA Centers in KCl:Na,” Opt. Commun. 12, 147 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Makushenko, A. M.

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, O. V. Stolbova, “Reversible Photodictioism and Photoisomerization of Complex Organic Molecules,” Opt. Spektrosk. 31, 741 (1971).

May, M.

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two-Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Neporent, B. S.

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, O. V. Stolbova, “Reversible Photodictioism and Photoisomerization of Complex Organic Molecules,” Opt. Spektrosk. 31, 741 (1971).

Nikolova, L.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials With and Without Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985).

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, “Diffraction Efficiency and Selectivity of Polarization Holographic Recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 529 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photoinduced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photochromism and Dinamic Holographic Recording in a Rigid Solution of Fluorescein,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, P. Stefanova, “Polarization Sensibility of the Photodichroic Holographic Recording,” Opt. Commun. 24, 44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shankoff, T. A.

Soskin, M. S.

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

Stefanova, P.

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, P. Stefanova, “Polarization Sensibility of the Photodichroic Holographic Recording,” Opt. Commun. 24, 44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Stolbova, O. V.

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, O. V. Stolbova, “Reversible Photodictioism and Photoisomerization of Complex Organic Molecules,” Opt. Spektrosk. 31, 741 (1971).

Taranenko, V. B.

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

Todorov, T.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials With and Without Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985).

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, “Diffraction Efficiency and Selectivity of Polarization Holographic Recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 529 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photoinduced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photochromism and Dinamic Holographic Recording in a Rigid Solution of Fluorescein,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, P. Stefanova, “Polarization Sensibility of the Photodichroic Holographic Recording,” Opt. Commun. 24, 44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tomova, N.

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials With and Without Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985).

T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photoinduced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photochromism and Dinamic Holographic Recording in a Rigid Solution of Fluorescein,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vsevolovod, N. N.

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

Appl. Opt. (2)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, “Polarization Holography. 2: Polarization Holographic Gratings in Photoanisotropic Materials With and Without Birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 24, 0000 (1985).

T. A. Shankoff, “Recording Holograms in Luminescent Materials,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2282 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. F. Borelli, J. B. Chodak, G. B. Hares, “Optically Induced Anisotropy in Photochromic Glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 5978 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kvantovaya Elektron. Moscow (1)

Sh. D. Kakichashvili, “Method of Recording Phase Polarization Holograms,” Kvantovaya Elektron. Moscow 1, 1435 (1974).

Opt. Acta (1)

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, “Diffraction Efficiency and Selectivity of Polarization Holographic Recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 529 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

T. Todorov, N. Tomova, L. Nikolova, “High Sensitivity Material with Reversible Photoinduced Anisotropy,” Opt. Commun. 47, 123 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. Blume, L. Bader, F. Loty, “Bi-Directional Holographic Information Storage Based on the Optical Reorientation of FA Centers in KCl:Na,” Opt. Commun. 12, 147 (1974).
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, P. Stefanova, “Polarization Sensibility of the Photodichroic Holographic Recording,” Opt. Commun. 24, 44 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. M. C. Jonathan, M. May, “Anisotropy Induced in a Silver-Silver Chloride Emulsion by Two-Coherent and Perpendicular Light Vibrations,” Opt. Commun. 29, 7 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Todorov, L. Nikolova, N. Tomova, V. Dragostinova, “Photochromism and Dinamic Holographic Recording in a Rigid Solution of Fluorescein,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 13, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spektrosk. (1)

A. M. Makushenko, B. S. Neporent, O. V. Stolbova, “Reversible Photodictioism and Photoisomerization of Complex Organic Molecules,” Opt. Spektrosk. 31, 741 (1971).

Ukr. Fiz. Zh. (1)

N. M. Burikin, N. N. Vsevolovod, T. V. Dyukova, E. Y. Kor-chemskaya, M. S. Soskin, V. B. Taranenko, “Photoinduced Anisotropy of Bacteriorhodopsin,” Ukr. Fiz. Zh. 28, 1269 (1983).

Other (1)

C. A. Finch, Ed., Polyvinyl Alcohol, Properties and Applications (Wiley, London, 1973).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of methyl orange/PVA layer at a dye concentration of 0.06 wt. %.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission change at λ = 488 nm under the action of an Ar+ laser beam of the same wavelength and intensity of 100 mW/cm2. T is the optical transmission for light, polarized parallel to the acting light polarization; T is for perpendicularly polarized light. The moments of switching on and off of the acting light are marked with arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Kinetics of the light signal change after passing through a pair of crossed polarizers, due to the photoinduced birefringence in a methyl orange/PVA layer placed between them.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Kinetics of the diffraction efficiency change in polarization holographic recording: curve a, during the recording; curve b, upper scale, erasure in darkness; curve c, lower scale, light erasure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of the photostationary value of the diffraction efficiency on the recording light intensity.

Equations (3)

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I = I 0 sin 2 ( δ φ 2 ) ,
δ φ = 2 π λ δ n d ,
I = I 0 ± δ I ,

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