Abstract

Uniformity of thermal expansion has been measured for fused quartz (Heraeus-Amersil TO8E) and borosilicate glass (Schott Duran and Ohara E6). The variation of expansion coefficient for three melts of TO8E was 5 × 10−9/K over a temperature range of 300 to 100 K and was found to vary linearly with position in the melt. This spatial gradient averaged 3.5 × 10−11/K cm. The room-temperature thermal expansivity variation of Duran (Tempax) glass was ~27 × 10−9/K, while that of E6 glass was ~52 × 10−9/K.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. P. Angel, “Very Large Ground-Based Telescopes for Optical and IR Astronomy,” Nature 295, 651 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  2. In sheet form, Duran is known as Tempax.
  3. The term fused quartz refers to remelted crystalline quartz; the term fused silica we reserve for the synthetic SiO2 compound, usually made by flame hydrolysis starting from SiCl4.
  4. D. M. Shough, “Creation of a New Facility for Measuring Thermal Expansion and Studies on the Homogeneity of Heraeus-Amersil Fused Silica,” Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1981).
  5. S. F. Jacobs, D. Shough, “Thermal Expansion Uniformity of Heraeus-Amersil TO8E Fused Silica,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3461 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. F. Jacobs, J. N. Bradford, J. W. Berthold, “Ultraprecise Measurement of Thermal Coefficients of Expansion,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2477 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. The borosilicate glass homogeneity work was the Master’s Thesis of C. Connors, U. Arizona (1983).
  8. Optical contacting is not essential. Since the optic axis is vertical, gravity can hold the etalon together. However, without optical contacting, measurements must be made with extra care.
  9. The stabilized laser used is a Zeeman-stabilized He–Ne laser patterned after the work of T. Baer, F. V. Kowalski, J. L. Hall, “Frequency Stabilization of a 0.633-μm He–Ne Longitudinal Zeeman Laser,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3173 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Hercher, “The Spherical Mirror Fabry-Perot Interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 7, 951 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

R. P. Angel, “Very Large Ground-Based Telescopes for Optical and IR Astronomy,” Nature 295, 651 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

1970 (1)

1968 (1)

Angel, R. P.

R. P. Angel, “Very Large Ground-Based Telescopes for Optical and IR Astronomy,” Nature 295, 651 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

Berthold, J. W.

Bradford, J. N.

Hall, J. L.

Hercher, M.

Jacobs, S. F.

Kowalski, F. V.

Shough, D.

Shough, D. M.

D. M. Shough, “Creation of a New Facility for Measuring Thermal Expansion and Studies on the Homogeneity of Heraeus-Amersil Fused Silica,” Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1981).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Nature (1)

R. P. Angel, “Very Large Ground-Based Telescopes for Optical and IR Astronomy,” Nature 295, 651 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

In sheet form, Duran is known as Tempax.

The term fused quartz refers to remelted crystalline quartz; the term fused silica we reserve for the synthetic SiO2 compound, usually made by flame hydrolysis starting from SiCl4.

D. M. Shough, “Creation of a New Facility for Measuring Thermal Expansion and Studies on the Homogeneity of Heraeus-Amersil Fused Silica,” Ph.D. Dissertation, U. Arizona (1981).

The borosilicate glass homogeneity work was the Master’s Thesis of C. Connors, U. Arizona (1983).

Optical contacting is not essential. Since the optic axis is vertical, gravity can hold the etalon together. However, without optical contacting, measurements must be made with extra care.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of thermal expansivities of borosilicate glass, Corning 7940 fused silica, Heraeus TO8E fused quartz, Corning 7971, and Zerodur.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TO8E lattice-core construction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lattice core construction with borosilicate glass; 38-cm blank made by Steward Observatory for Ames Research Center.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Arrangement used to measure absolute thermal expansion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Configuration of sample/etalon forming 10-cm confocal resonator. Note dielectric reflectance coatings on curved surfaces.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cryostat used to maintain sample at uniform temperatures. Overall length: 1.5 m.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical arrangement for differential expansivity measurements showing mode-matching lenses, sample placement, and heterodyne beat detector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cutaway view of differential expansivity sample chamber (overall height: 1 m), showing locations of thick-walled copper sample chamber, samples, and detectors (at top) to obtain signals for lockin.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Differential expansion vs temperature—melt 1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Differential expansion vs temperature—melt 2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Differential expansion vs temperature—melt 3.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Differential expansion vs temperature—melt 4.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Summary of expansion vs temperature—melts 1–4.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Remeasurement (one month later) of TO8E sample I–III vs I–IIII.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Homogeneity of several borosilicate glasses.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Details of Tempax results showing average experimental reproducibility.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of TO8E Differential Thermal Expansion, 300–100 K.

Tables Icon

Table II 300–100 K Thermal Expansion Gradients in TO8E Quartz

Tables Icon

Table III Tempax Δα Comparisons vs Sample 17

Tables Icon

Table IV Tempax Remeasurements to Establish Accuracy of Homogeneity Measurements

Tables Icon

Table V E6 Δα Comparisons vs Sample 2

Tables Icon

Table VI Summary of CTE Homogeneity Δα (× 10−8/K)

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f m = m c 2 L ,
Δ f f = Δ L L .
f beat = f 1 - f 2 .
Δ f beat = Δ f 1 - Δ f 2 .
Δ f beat = f 1 ( Δ L 1 L 1 ) - f 2 ( Δ L 2 L 2 ) .
Δ f beat f = Δ L 1 L 1 - Δ L 1 L 2 Δ ( Δ L L ) .
Δ α = 1 f Δ f beat Δ T .
δ α = { [ α ( Δ T ) δ ( Δ T ) ] 2 + [ α ( Δ f ) δ ( Δ f ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
α = 1 L Δ L Δ T = 1 Δ T Δ f f .
δ α = 1 Δ T { [ α δ ( Δ T ) ] 2 + [ δ ( Δ f ) f ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
Δ f Δ T = α f ( 5 × 10 - 7 / K ) × ( 5 × 10 14 Hz ) = 250 MHz / K .
δ ( Δ α ) = { [ ( Δ α ) ( Δ T ) δ ( Δ T ) ] 2 + [ ( Δ α ) ( Δ f ) δ ( Δ f ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
δ ( Δ α ) = 1 Δ T { [ ( Δ α ) δ ( Δ T ) ] 2 + [ δ ( Δ f ) f ] 2 } 1 / 2 .

Metrics