Abstract

Work done to produce x-ray mirrors via electroform replication is reported. Several advances have been made over previous work. We have produced lower grazing incidence angle (30 min) mirrors, obtained quantitative measurements up to higher energies (6.40 keV), produced about four times as many replicas from one mandrel, and obtained angular resolutions better than other work done with replicated metal mirrors.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Underwood, D. T. Attwood, “The Renaissance of X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Today, 37, 44 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. C. Catura, W. A. Brown, E. G. Joki, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 19801s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, ed.
  3. P. Gorenstein, D. Schwartz, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980’s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, Ed.
  4. D. G. DuPree, “Electroformed Metal Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 65, 103 (1975).
  5. J. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions 27, 101 (1984).
  6. A. C. Williams et al., “The AXAF Technology Program: The Optical Flats Tests,” NASA TM-82570, Jan.1984.
  7. R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, O. A. Ershov, Y. F. Shepelev, “Reflection Coefficients of Radiation in the Wavelength Range from 23.6 to 113 Å for a Number of Elements and Substances and the Determination of the Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 168 (1964).
  9. O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, “Reflection of X Rays from Certain Substances in the Region from 7 to 44 Å,” Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).
  10. A. Bunner, private communication.
  11. R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, V. Prazak, I. Sole, “Properties of Galvanoplastic Grazing Incidence Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. 32, 188 (1981).
  12. J. A. Bowles, T. S. Patrick, P. H. Sheather, A. M. Eiband, “Design of an X-Ray Telescope System for an Orbiting Astronomical Observatory,” J. Phy. E 7, 183 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, R. Giacconi, “Study of X-Ray Images of the Sun at Solar Minimum,” Astrophys. J. 151, 333 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Development of X-Ray Mirrors for High Energy Astrophysics in Czechoslovakia,” in IAU/COSPAR Symposium on Advances in High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology, July 1983, Rojin, Bulgaria.
  15. P. A. J. de Korte, R. Giralt, J. N. Coste, C. Ernee, S. Frindel, J. Flamand, J. J. Contet, “EXOSAT X-Ray Imaging Optics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1080 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (3)

J. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions 27, 101 (1984).

A. C. Williams et al., “The AXAF Technology Program: The Optical Flats Tests,” NASA TM-82570, Jan.1984.

J. H. Underwood, D. T. Attwood, “The Renaissance of X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Today, 37, 44 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, V. Prazak, I. Sole, “Properties of Galvanoplastic Grazing Incidence Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. 32, 188 (1981).

P. A. J. de Korte, R. Giralt, J. N. Coste, C. Ernee, S. Frindel, J. Flamand, J. J. Contet, “EXOSAT X-Ray Imaging Optics,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1080 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

D. G. DuPree, “Electroformed Metal Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 65, 103 (1975).

1974 (1)

J. A. Bowles, T. S. Patrick, P. H. Sheather, A. M. Eiband, “Design of an X-Ray Telescope System for an Orbiting Astronomical Observatory,” J. Phy. E 7, 183 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, R. Giacconi, “Study of X-Ray Images of the Sun at Solar Minimum,” Astrophys. J. 151, 333 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, “Reflection of X Rays from Certain Substances in the Region from 7 to 44 Å,” Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

1964 (1)

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, O. A. Ershov, Y. F. Shepelev, “Reflection Coefficients of Radiation in the Wavelength Range from 23.6 to 113 Å for a Number of Elements and Substances and the Determination of the Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 168 (1964).

Attwood, D. T.

J. H. Underwood, D. T. Attwood, “The Renaissance of X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Today, 37, 44 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bhushan, B.

J. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions 27, 101 (1984).

Bowles, J. A.

J. A. Bowles, T. S. Patrick, P. H. Sheather, A. M. Eiband, “Design of an X-Ray Telescope System for an Orbiting Astronomical Observatory,” J. Phy. E 7, 183 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. A.

R. C. Catura, W. A. Brown, E. G. Joki, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 19801s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, ed.

Brytov, I. A.

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, “Reflection of X Rays from Certain Substances in the Region from 7 to 44 Å,” Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

Bunner, A.

A. Bunner, private communication.

Catura, R. C.

R. C. Catura, W. A. Brown, E. G. Joki, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 19801s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, ed.

Contet, J. J.

Coste, J. N.

de Korte, P. A. J.

DuPree, D. G.

D. G. DuPree, “Electroformed Metal Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 65, 103 (1975).

Eiband, A. M.

J. A. Bowles, T. S. Patrick, P. H. Sheather, A. M. Eiband, “Design of an X-Ray Telescope System for an Orbiting Astronomical Observatory,” J. Phy. E 7, 183 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ernee, C.

Ershov, O. A.

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, “Reflection of X Rays from Certain Substances in the Region from 7 to 44 Å,” Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, O. A. Ershov, Y. F. Shepelev, “Reflection Coefficients of Radiation in the Wavelength Range from 23.6 to 113 Å for a Number of Elements and Substances and the Determination of the Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 168 (1964).

Flamand, J.

Frindel, S.

George, O. E.

J. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions 27, 101 (1984).

Giacconi, R.

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, R. Giacconi, “Study of X-Ray Images of the Sun at Solar Minimum,” Astrophys. J. 151, 333 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Giralt, R.

Gorenstein, P.

P. Gorenstein, D. Schwartz, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980’s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, Ed.

Hudec, R.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, V. Prazak, I. Sole, “Properties of Galvanoplastic Grazing Incidence Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. 32, 188 (1981).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Development of X-Ray Mirrors for High Energy Astrophysics in Czechoslovakia,” in IAU/COSPAR Symposium on Advances in High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology, July 1983, Rojin, Bulgaria.

Joki, E. G.

R. C. Catura, W. A. Brown, E. G. Joki, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 19801s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, ed.

Koliopoulos, C. L.

J. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions 27, 101 (1984).

Lukirskii, A. P.

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, “Reflection of X Rays from Certain Substances in the Region from 7 to 44 Å,” Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, O. A. Ershov, Y. F. Shepelev, “Reflection Coefficients of Radiation in the Wavelength Range from 23.6 to 113 Å for a Number of Elements and Substances and the Determination of the Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 168 (1964).

Patrick, T. S.

J. A. Bowles, T. S. Patrick, P. H. Sheather, A. M. Eiband, “Design of an X-Ray Telescope System for an Orbiting Astronomical Observatory,” J. Phy. E 7, 183 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Prazak, V.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, V. Prazak, I. Sole, “Properties of Galvanoplastic Grazing Incidence Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. 32, 188 (1981).

Reidy, W. P.

W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, R. Giacconi, “Study of X-Ray Images of the Sun at Solar Minimum,” Astrophys. J. 151, 333 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Savinov, E. P.

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, O. A. Ershov, Y. F. Shepelev, “Reflection Coefficients of Radiation in the Wavelength Range from 23.6 to 113 Å for a Number of Elements and Substances and the Determination of the Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 168 (1964).

Schwartz, D.

P. Gorenstein, D. Schwartz, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980’s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, Ed.

Sheather, P. H.

J. A. Bowles, T. S. Patrick, P. H. Sheather, A. M. Eiband, “Design of an X-Ray Telescope System for an Orbiting Astronomical Observatory,” J. Phy. E 7, 183 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shepelev, Y. F.

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, O. A. Ershov, Y. F. Shepelev, “Reflection Coefficients of Radiation in the Wavelength Range from 23.6 to 113 Å for a Number of Elements and Substances and the Determination of the Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 168 (1964).

Sole, I.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, V. Prazak, I. Sole, “Properties of Galvanoplastic Grazing Incidence Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. 32, 188 (1981).

Underwood, J. H.

J. H. Underwood, D. T. Attwood, “The Renaissance of X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Today, 37, 44 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Vaiana, G. S.

W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, R. Giacconi, “Study of X-Ray Images of the Sun at Solar Minimum,” Astrophys. J. 151, 333 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Valnicek, B.

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, V. Prazak, I. Sole, “Properties of Galvanoplastic Grazing Incidence Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. 32, 188 (1981).

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Development of X-Ray Mirrors for High Energy Astrophysics in Czechoslovakia,” in IAU/COSPAR Symposium on Advances in High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology, July 1983, Rojin, Bulgaria.

Williams, A. C.

A. C. Williams et al., “The AXAF Technology Program: The Optical Flats Tests,” NASA TM-82570, Jan.1984.

Wyant, J.

J. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions 27, 101 (1984).

Zehnpfennig, T.

W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, R. Giacconi, “Study of X-Ray Images of the Sun at Solar Minimum,” Astrophys. J. 151, 333 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions (1)

J. Wyant, C. L. Koliopoulos, B. Bhushan, O. E. George, “An Optical Profilometer for Surface Characterization of Magnetic Media,” Amer. Soc. Lubric. Engrs. Transactions 27, 101 (1984).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Astrophys. J. (2)

W. P. Reidy, G. S. Vaiana, T. Zehnpfennig, R. Giacconi, “Study of X-Ray Images of the Sun at Solar Minimum,” Astrophys. J. 151, 333 (1968).
[CrossRef]

R. Giacconi et al., “The Einstein (HEAO 2) X-Ray Observatory,” Astrophys. J. 230, 540 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. (1)

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, V. Prazak, I. Sole, “Properties of Galvanoplastic Grazing Incidence Mirrors for Astronomical Applications,” Bull. Astron. Instrum. Czech. 32, 188 (1981).

J. Phy. E (1)

J. A. Bowles, T. S. Patrick, P. H. Sheather, A. M. Eiband, “Design of an X-Ray Telescope System for an Orbiting Astronomical Observatory,” J. Phy. E 7, 183 (1974).
[CrossRef]

NASA TM-82570 (1)

A. C. Williams et al., “The AXAF Technology Program: The Optical Flats Tests,” NASA TM-82570, Jan.1984.

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

A. P. Lukirskii, E. P. Savinov, O. A. Ershov, Y. F. Shepelev, “Reflection Coefficients of Radiation in the Wavelength Range from 23.6 to 113 Å for a Number of Elements and Substances and the Determination of the Refractive Index and Absorption Coefficient,” Opt. Spectrosc. 16, 168 (1964).

O. A. Ershov, I. A. Brytov, A. P. Lukirskii, “Reflection of X Rays from Certain Substances in the Region from 7 to 44 Å,” Opt. Spectrosc. 22, 66 (1967).

Phys. Today (1)

J. H. Underwood, D. T. Attwood, “The Renaissance of X-Ray Optics,” Phys. Today, 37, 44 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. G. DuPree, “Electroformed Metal Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 65, 103 (1975).

Other (4)

R. Hudec, B. Valnicek, “Development of X-Ray Mirrors for High Energy Astrophysics in Czechoslovakia,” in IAU/COSPAR Symposium on Advances in High Energy Astrophysics and Cosmology, July 1983, Rojin, Bulgaria.

R. C. Catura, W. A. Brown, E. G. Joki, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 19801s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, ed.

P. Gorenstein, D. Schwartz, “X-Ray Astronomy in the 1980’s,” in Proceedings, Goddard Workshop on X-Ray Astronomy, October 1981, Greenbelt, Md., S. Holt, Ed.

A. Bunner, private communication.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of mandrel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Total reflectivity as a function of energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FWHM resolution values as a function of energy. The values at 6.40 keV were extrapolated from those at 4.51 keV by normalizing the MCP and LPC at 4.51 keV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Average counts/pixel from annular regions of various radii about the central peak. Data from mirror 25 at 2.99 keV are shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fraction of encircled power as a function of radius for mirrors 1 and 25. From bottom to top the energies shown are 0.25, 2.99, and 4.51 keV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sample image from mirror 1 at 2.99 keV. The units shown are min of arc. Typically there are 0.0041 counts/arcsec2 in the lobes and 0.0428 counts/arcsec2 in the saturated central region.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of X-Ray Mirror Replication Work

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