Abstract

The surface roughness of low-scatter mirrors and roughness standards can be measured in various ways: mechanically, optically, and electronoptically. In this paper several useful methods and instruments—total integrated scattering, stylus profilometer, optical heterodyne profilometer, variable angle scatterometer, and electron mirror interference microscope—are presented. Qualitative surface roughness assessment is provided by Nomarski microscopy and transmission electron microscopy of surface replicas. Samples were prepared at Balzers, and their surface roughness was measured at several laboratories using the methods given above. The results of these measurements are compared, and reasons for the differences are discussed.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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