Abstract

A number of commercially available optical coatings, both antireflective and high reflective, have been tested for their laser-induced damage threshold, involving a total of eight different laboratories. The results obtained and the experimental methods used at these laboratories were discussed among the participants in this round robin at a minisymposium held at Balzers, Liechtenstein, 9–10 Dec. 1982. A final report of the round robin and a summary of the conclusions drawn at that symposium are presented.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, “Laser Induced Damage of Optical Elements—a Status Report,” Appl. Opt. 12, 637 (1973); “Laser Induced Damage to Optical Materials, 1973: a Conference Report,” Appl. Opt. 13, 74 (1974); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 6th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 14, 698 (1975); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 7th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1510 (1976); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 8th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1214 (1977); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Ninth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2386 (1978); “Laser Induced Damage to Optical Materials: Tenth ASTM Symposium,” 18, 2112 (1979); H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Eleventh ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2375 (1980); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Twelfth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3003 (1981); “Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Thirteenth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3276 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental, —Part II: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041, 2053 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Optical Coatings for Laser Fusion Applications,” Thin Solid Films 73, 155 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. K. Carniglia, “Oxide Coatings for One Micrometer Laser Fusion Systems,” Thin Solid Films 77, 225 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. H. Lowdermilk, “Coatings for Laser Fusion,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 2 (1982).
  6. D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, F. Rainer, J. E. Swain, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, “Influence of Deposition Parameters on Laser-Damage Threshold of Silica–Tantala AR Coatings,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3689 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Rainer, T. F. Deaton, “Laser Damage Thresholds at Short Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1722 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. F. Deaton, F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.620 (1981), p. 297.
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1982,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ., in press.
  10. M. Eichner, H. Weber, U. Kaiserslautern; private communications.
  11. H. Küster, J. Ebert, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.568 (1979), p. 269.
  12. J. Ebert, E. Kiesel, “Measurement of Laser-Induced Damage with an Unstable Resonator-Type Laser,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3759 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Milam, J. B. Willis, F. Rainer, G. R. Wirtenson, “Determination of Laser Damage Thresholds by Comparison with an Absolute Laser Damage Standard,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 402 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Milam, “Measurement and Identification of Laser-Damage Thresholds in Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 52 (1978).
  15. A. P. Schwarzenbach, H. P. Weber, J. E. Balmer, “Laser Damage Test on Balzers Thin Film Coatings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3764 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Kuehnel, W. Ryseck, Siemens AG; private communications.
  17. R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser Damage in Optical Materials at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. C. Seitel, J. B. Franck, C. D. Marrs, G. D. Williams, “Selective and Uniform Laser-Induced Failure of Antireflection-Coated LiNbO3 Surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 475 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 266 (1983).
  20. K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt.3820 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. H. Guenther, R. Menningen, “1.06-μm Laser Damage of Optical Coatings: Regression Analyses of Round-Robin Test Results,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3754 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. S. R. Foltyn, paper presented at Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, Colo. (Nov. 1982).
  23. J. O. Porteus, paper presented at Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, Colo. (Nov. 1982).
  24. J. R. Bettis, R. A. House, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976,” A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.462 (1976), p. 338.
  25. K. H. Guenther et al., in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. (1984), in press.

1984

1983

S. C. Seitel, J. B. Franck, C. D. Marrs, G. D. Williams, “Selective and Uniform Laser-Induced Failure of Antireflection-Coated LiNbO3 Surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 266 (1983).

1982

1981

C. K. Carniglia, “Oxide Coatings for One Micrometer Laser Fusion Systems,” Thin Solid Films 77, 225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, J. B. Willis, F. Rainer, G. R. Wirtenson, “Determination of Laser Damage Thresholds by Comparison with an Absolute Laser Damage Standard,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental, —Part II: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Optical Coatings for Laser Fusion Applications,” Thin Solid Films 73, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

D. Milam, “Measurement and Identification of Laser-Damage Thresholds in Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 52 (1978).

1975

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser Damage in Optical Materials at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

Balmer, J. E.

Bennett, J. M.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt.3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettis, J. R.

J. R. Bettis, R. A. House, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976,” A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.462 (1976), p. 338.

Carniglia, C. K.

Deaton, T. F.

F. Rainer, T. F. Deaton, “Laser Damage Thresholds at Short Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1722 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Deaton, F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.620 (1981), p. 297.
[CrossRef]

Ebert, J.

J. Ebert, E. Kiesel, “Measurement of Laser-Induced Damage with an Unstable Resonator-Type Laser,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3759 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Küster, J. Ebert, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.568 (1979), p. 269.

Eichner, M.

M. Eichner, H. Weber, U. Kaiserslautern; private communications.

Foltyn, S. R.

S. R. Foltyn, paper presented at Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, Colo. (Nov. 1982).

Franck, J. B.

S. C. Seitel, J. B. Franck, C. D. Marrs, G. D. Williams, “Selective and Uniform Laser-Induced Failure of Antireflection-Coated LiNbO3 Surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. J.

Guenther, A. H.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental, —Part II: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, “Laser Induced Damage of Optical Elements—a Status Report,” Appl. Opt. 12, 637 (1973); “Laser Induced Damage to Optical Materials, 1973: a Conference Report,” Appl. Opt. 13, 74 (1974); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 6th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 14, 698 (1975); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 7th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1510 (1976); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 8th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1214 (1977); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Ninth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2386 (1978); “Laser Induced Damage to Optical Materials: Tenth ASTM Symposium,” 18, 2112 (1979); H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Eleventh ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2375 (1980); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Twelfth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3003 (1981); “Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Thirteenth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3276 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Bettis, R. A. House, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976,” A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.462 (1976), p. 338.

A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1982,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ., in press.

Guenther, K. H.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt.3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, R. Menningen, “1.06-μm Laser Damage of Optical Coatings: Regression Analyses of Round-Robin Test Results,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3754 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 266 (1983).

K. H. Guenther et al., in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. (1984), in press.

Hart, T. T.

House, R. A.

J. R. Bettis, R. A. House, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976,” A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.462 (1976), p. 338.

Kiesel, E.

Kuehnel, R.

R. Kuehnel, W. Ryseck, Siemens AG; private communications.

Küster, H.

H. Küster, J. Ebert, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.568 (1979), p. 269.

Lowdermilk, W. H.

W. H. Lowdermilk, “Coatings for Laser Fusion,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 2 (1982).

D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, F. Rainer, J. E. Swain, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, “Influence of Deposition Parameters on Laser-Damage Threshold of Silica–Tantala AR Coatings,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3689 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Optical Coatings for Laser Fusion Applications,” Thin Solid Films 73, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Marrs, C. D.

S. C. Seitel, J. B. Franck, C. D. Marrs, G. D. Williams, “Selective and Uniform Laser-Induced Failure of Antireflection-Coated LiNbO3 Surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Menningen, R.

Milam, D.

D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, F. Rainer, J. E. Swain, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, “Influence of Deposition Parameters on Laser-Damage Threshold of Silica–Tantala AR Coatings,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3689 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Milam, J. B. Willis, F. Rainer, G. R. Wirtenson, “Determination of Laser Damage Thresholds by Comparison with an Absolute Laser Damage Standard,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Optical Coatings for Laser Fusion Applications,” Thin Solid Films 73, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Milam, “Measurement and Identification of Laser-Damage Thresholds in Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 52 (1978).

T. F. Deaton, F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.620 (1981), p. 297.
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, P.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental, —Part II: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Porteus, J. O.

J. O. Porteus, paper presented at Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, Colo. (Nov. 1982).

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, T. F. Deaton, “Laser Damage Thresholds at Short Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1722 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, F. Rainer, J. E. Swain, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, “Influence of Deposition Parameters on Laser-Damage Threshold of Silica–Tantala AR Coatings,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3689 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Milam, J. B. Willis, F. Rainer, G. R. Wirtenson, “Determination of Laser Damage Thresholds by Comparison with an Absolute Laser Damage Standard,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Optical Coatings for Laser Fusion Applications,” Thin Solid Films 73, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Deaton, F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.620 (1981), p. 297.
[CrossRef]

Rouse, R. L.

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser Damage in Optical Materials at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Ryseck, W.

R. Kuehnel, W. Ryseck, Siemens AG; private communications.

Schwarzenbach, A. P.

Seitel, S. C.

S. C. Seitel, J. B. Franck, C. D. Marrs, G. D. Williams, “Selective and Uniform Laser-Induced Failure of Antireflection-Coated LiNbO3 Surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Smith, W. L.

T. F. Deaton, F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.620 (1981), p. 297.
[CrossRef]

Stewart, A. F.

A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1982,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ., in press.

Swain, J. E.

Taylor, R. T.

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser Damage in Optical Materials at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. W.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental, —Part II: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

M. Eichner, H. Weber, U. Kaiserslautern; private communications.

Weber, H. P.

Wierer, P. G.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt.3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 266 (1983).

Williams, G. D.

S. C. Seitel, J. B. Franck, C. D. Marrs, G. D. Williams, “Selective and Uniform Laser-Induced Failure of Antireflection-Coated LiNbO3 Surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Willis, J. B.

D. Milam, J. B. Willis, F. Rainer, G. R. Wirtenson, “Determination of Laser Damage Thresholds by Comparison with an Absolute Laser Damage Standard,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wirtenson, G. R.

D. Milam, J. B. Willis, F. Rainer, G. R. Wirtenson, “Determination of Laser Damage Thresholds by Comparison with an Absolute Laser Damage Standard,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. M.

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser Damage in Optical Materials at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, J. M. Bennett, “Surface Roughness Measurements of Low Scatter Mirrors and Roughness Standards,” Appl. Opt.3820 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, “Laser Induced Damage of Optical Elements—a Status Report,” Appl. Opt. 12, 637 (1973); “Laser Induced Damage to Optical Materials, 1973: a Conference Report,” Appl. Opt. 13, 74 (1974); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 6th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 14, 698 (1975); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 7th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1510 (1976); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 8th ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1214 (1977); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Ninth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 2386 (1978); “Laser Induced Damage to Optical Materials: Tenth ASTM Symposium,” 18, 2112 (1979); H. E. Bennett, A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, B. Newnam, “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Eleventh ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2375 (1980); “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Twelfth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3003 (1981); “Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: Thirteenth ASTM Symposium,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3276 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rainer, T. F. Deaton, “Laser Damage Thresholds at Short Wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1722 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Milam, W. H. Lowdermilk, F. Rainer, J. E. Swain, C. K. Carniglia, T. T. Hart, “Influence of Deposition Parameters on Laser-Damage Threshold of Silica–Tantala AR Coatings,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3689 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Guenther, R. Menningen, “1.06-μm Laser Damage of Optical Coatings: Regression Analyses of Round-Robin Test Results,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3754 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ebert, E. Kiesel, “Measurement of Laser-Induced Damage with an Unstable Resonator-Type Laser,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3759 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Schwarzenbach, H. P. Weber, J. E. Balmer, “Laser Damage Test on Balzers Thin Film Coatings,” Appl. Opt. 23, 3764 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Milam, J. B. Willis, F. Rainer, G. R. Wirtenson, “Determination of Laser Damage Thresholds by Comparison with an Absolute Laser Damage Standard,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 402 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. W. Walker, A. H. Guenther, P. Nielsen, “Pulsed Laser-Induced Damage to Thin-Film Optical Coatings—Part I: Experimental, —Part II: Theory,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2041, 2053 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Seitel, J. B. Franck, C. D. Marrs, G. D. Williams, “Selective and Uniform Laser-Induced Failure of Antireflection-Coated LiNbO3 Surfaces,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol.

R. M. Wood, R. T. Taylor, R. L. Rouse, “Laser Damage in Optical Materials at 1.06 μm,” Opt. Laser Technol. 7, 105 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

K. H. Guenther, P. G. Wierer, “Surface Roughness Assessment of Ultrasmooth Laser Mirrors and Substrates,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 402, 266 (1983).

D. Milam, “Measurement and Identification of Laser-Damage Thresholds in Thin Films,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 140, 52 (1978).

W. H. Lowdermilk, “Coatings for Laser Fusion,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 325, 2 (1982).

Thin Solid Films

W. H. Lowdermilk, D. Milam, F. Rainer, “Optical Coatings for Laser Fusion Applications,” Thin Solid Films 73, 155 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Carniglia, “Oxide Coatings for One Micrometer Laser Fusion Systems,” Thin Solid Films 77, 225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Kuehnel, W. Ryseck, Siemens AG; private communications.

T. F. Deaton, F. Rainer, D. Milam, W. L. Smith, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1980,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.620 (1981), p. 297.
[CrossRef]

A. F. Stewart, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1982,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ., in press.

M. Eichner, H. Weber, U. Kaiserslautern; private communications.

H. Küster, J. Ebert, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1979,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.568 (1979), p. 269.

S. R. Foltyn, paper presented at Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, Colo. (Nov. 1982).

J. O. Porteus, paper presented at Fourteenth Annual Symposium on Optical Materials for High Power Lasers, Boulder, Colo. (Nov. 1982).

J. R. Bettis, R. A. House, A. H. Guenther, in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1976,” A. J. Glass, A. H. Guenther, Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ.462 (1976), p. 338.

K. H. Guenther et al., in “Laser Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 1983,” H. E. Bennett et al., Eds., Natl. Bur. Stand. U.S. Spec. Publ. (1984), in press.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical AR coatings used in the LIDT round-robin experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser-induced damage to optical coatings: detection by auxiliary He–Ne laser scattering (Eichner and Weber, U. Kaiserslautern).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Multithreshold results obtained at NWC (S. Seitel) for two laser Transmax samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Representation of LIDT test data obtained at AFWL (A. F. Stewart and A. H. Guenther).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graphical representation of LIDT round-robin test results for (a) Duolin (DN) and (b) laser mirror (RS).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nomarski micrographs of 1.06-μm laser damage, just above damage threshold (min) and at heavily damaged sites (max). Scale bar equals 500 μm if not otherwise stated: (a) Duolin (DN), (b) laser mirror (RS).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Determination of damage onset by extrapolation to zero failure rate as suggested by Porteus23; data are on laser Transmax sample at NWC (S. C. Seitel).

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table I Summary of Experimental Conditions Used at Various Laser Laboratories

Tables Icon

Table II Characterization of LIDT Samples

Tables Icon

Table III Compilation of Laser-induced Damage Threshold Fluences (J cm−2) Obtained in the Round-Robin Test

Tables Icon

Table IV Assessment of Laser Damage Sites with Nomarski Microscopy for Various Test Conditions

Tables Icon

Table V Comparison of Electric Fields ∝ [Emin(D)/τ1/2]1/2

Tables Icon

Table VI Considerations for Standardization of LIDT—Testing of Optical Coatings

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F th = E th A = 1 2 · E max ( ND ) + E min ( D ) A = 1 2 [ F max ( ND ) + F min ( D ) ] ,
S = E max ( ND ) - E min ( D ) E th ,
I min ( D ) = E min ( D ) / A / τ = F min ( D ) / τ ,
F P = 2 E A ,
F i = a 1 · τ b 1 ,
F i = a 2 · d - b 2 .
τ · S 2 = const ,
τ 1 / 2 · S = const ,
τ 1 / 2 · E th τ = E th τ 1 / 2 = const .
E th / τ 1 / 2 = const .

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