Abstract

A small field-of-view microprocessor-controlled radiometer has been developed for measuring the spectral radiance in the solar aureole region and on the solar disk itself. Calibration problems which include the influence of instrumental scatter on solar aureole measurements and the effects of optical instability on Langley plot data have been investigated. A simple technique for measuring the instrumental scatter component is presented and comparisons are made with actual aureole data. Simultaneous measurements of NO2 columnar abundance were performed in order to assess the effect of variable NO2 optical depth on Langley plot calibration constants in the blue region of the spectrum. The aureole radiance at a constant angular distance from the sun is used to infer optical stability as affected by aerosol content variation. The latter two studies were felt to be particularly relevant given that our measurements were made in the vicinity of a large urban center.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. E. Shaw, “Inversion of Optical Scattering and Spectral Extinction Measurements to Recover Aerosol Size Spectra,” Appl. Opt. 18, 988 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, “Multispectral Extinction Measurements to Deduce the Complex Refractive Index and the Size Distribution of Aerosol Particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2233 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, “A Method for Inferring Total Ozone Content from the Spectral Variation of Total Optical Depth Obtained with a Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 2: Studies of the Inferred Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 0000 (1984), this issue.
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. H. Grether, J. Nelson, M. Whahlig, “Measurements of Circumsolar Radiation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 69, 41 (1975).
  6. C. Leinert, D. Kluppelberg, “Stray Light Suppression in Optical Space Experiments,” Appl. Opt. 13, 556 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. W. G. Fastie, “Ultraviolet Measurements in Planetary Atmospheres,” Appl. Opt. 6, 397 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. T. O’Neill, “A Radiative Transfer Experiment in an Urban Atmosphere,” Ph.D. Dissertation, York U. (1982).
  9. G. E. Shaw, “Nitrogen Dioxide-Optical Absorption in the Visible,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5791 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere,” Nature London 246, 129 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. M. Luther, “A Parametrization of Solar Absorption by Nitrogen Dioxide,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 479 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on the Precision and Accuracy of Voltz Sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1206 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. V. Pyaskovskaya-Fesenkova, in Atmospheric Optics, N. B. Divari, Ed. Translated from Russian by S. B. Dresner (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1970).
  14. A. E. S. Green, A. Deepak, B. J. Lipofsky, “Interpretation of the Sun’s Aureole Based on Atmospheric Aerosol Models,” Appl. Opt. 10, 1263 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. A. Kharitonova, in Atmospheric Optics, see Ref. 13.

1984 (1)

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 2: Studies of the Inferred Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 0000 (1984), this issue.
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1976 (3)

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, “A Method for Inferring Total Ozone Content from the Spectral Variation of Total Optical Depth Obtained with a Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, “Nitrogen Dioxide-Optical Absorption in the Visible,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. M. Luther, “A Parametrization of Solar Absorption by Nitrogen Dioxide,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 479 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on the Precision and Accuracy of Voltz Sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1206 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Grether, J. Nelson, M. Whahlig, “Measurements of Circumsolar Radiation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 69, 41 (1975).

1974 (2)

J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, “Multispectral Extinction Measurements to Deduce the Complex Refractive Index and the Size Distribution of Aerosol Particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. Leinert, D. Kluppelberg, “Stray Light Suppression in Optical Space Experiments,” Appl. Opt. 13, 556 (1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973 (1)

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere,” Nature London 246, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1967 (1)

Brewer, A. W.

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere,” Nature London 246, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, “A Method for Inferring Total Ozone Content from the Spectral Variation of Total Optical Depth Obtained with a Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Deepak, A.

Fastie, W. G.

Green, A. E. S.

Grether, D. H.

D. H. Grether, J. Nelson, M. Whahlig, “Measurements of Circumsolar Radiation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 69, 41 (1975).

Kerr, J. B.

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere,” Nature London 246, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Kharitonova, G. A.

G. A. Kharitonova, in Atmospheric Optics, see Ref. 13.

King, M. D.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, “A Method for Inferring Total Ozone Content from the Spectral Variation of Total Optical Depth Obtained with a Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kluppelberg, D.

Kuriyan, J. G.

J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, “Multispectral Extinction Measurements to Deduce the Complex Refractive Index and the Size Distribution of Aerosol Particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Leinert, C.

Lipofsky, B. J.

Luther, F. M.

F. M. Luther, “A Parametrization of Solar Absorption by Nitrogen Dioxide,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 479 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, C. T.

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere,” Nature London 246, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. R.

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 2: Studies of the Inferred Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 0000 (1984), this issue.
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

D. H. Grether, J. Nelson, M. Whahlig, “Measurements of Circumsolar Radiation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 69, 41 (1975).

O’Neill, N. T.

N. T. O’Neill, J. R. Miller, “Combined Solar Aureole and Solar Beam Extinction Measurements. 2: Studies of the Inferred Aerosol Size Distributions,” Appl. Opt. 23, 0000 (1984), this issue.
[CrossRef]

N. T. O’Neill, “A Radiative Transfer Experiment in an Urban Atmosphere,” Ph.D. Dissertation, York U. (1982).

Phillips, D. H.

J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, “Multispectral Extinction Measurements to Deduce the Complex Refractive Index and the Size Distribution of Aerosol Particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Pyaskovskaya-Fesenkova, E. V.

E. V. Pyaskovskaya-Fesenkova, in Atmospheric Optics, N. B. Divari, Ed. Translated from Russian by S. B. Dresner (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1970).

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on the Precision and Accuracy of Voltz Sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1206 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Inversion of Optical Scattering and Spectral Extinction Measurements to Recover Aerosol Size Spectra,” Appl. Opt. 18, 988 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Shaw, “Nitrogen Dioxide-Optical Absorption in the Visible,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on the Precision and Accuracy of Voltz Sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1206 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Whahlig, M.

D. H. Grether, J. Nelson, M. Whahlig, “Measurements of Circumsolar Radiation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 69, 41 (1975).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

F. M. Luther, “A Parametrization of Solar Absorption by Nitrogen Dioxide,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 479 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, “Comments on the Precision and Accuracy of Voltz Sunphotometry,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 15, 1206 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. G. Kuriyan, D. H. Phillips, “Multispectral Extinction Measurements to Deduce the Complex Refractive Index and the Size Distribution of Aerosol Particles,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 2233 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, “A Method for Inferring Total Ozone Content from the Spectral Variation of Total Optical Depth Obtained with a Radiometer,” J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

G. E. Shaw, “Nitrogen Dioxide-Optical Absorption in the Visible,” J. Geophys. Res. 91, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nature London (1)

A. W. Brewer, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations in the Atmosphere,” Nature London 246, 129 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

D. H. Grether, J. Nelson, M. Whahlig, “Measurements of Circumsolar Radiation,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 69, 41 (1975).

Other (3)

N. T. O’Neill, “A Radiative Transfer Experiment in an Urban Atmosphere,” Ph.D. Dissertation, York U. (1982).

E. V. Pyaskovskaya-Fesenkova, in Atmospheric Optics, N. B. Divari, Ed. Translated from Russian by S. B. Dresner (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1970).

G. A. Kharitonova, in Atmospheric Optics, see Ref. 13.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Baffle design of the solar aureole radiometer: M1, primary mirror; M2, secondary mirror; C, primary mirror collar; LT, light trap; B1–B8, baffles; B8, aperture stop baffle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup to measure instrumental scatter of the solar aureole radiometer using an artificial solar beam source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log of the instrumental scattering ratio R(χ) measured at two different wavelengths.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized aureole radiance data compared with normalized instrumental scatter data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NO2 equivalent length (millicentimeters) for three sets of morning measurements in August 1981.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of NO2 variation on a Langley plot.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Langley plot and relative aureole on an optically stable day, 8 Nov. 1981.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Langley plot and relative aureole on an optically unstable day, 3 Nov., a.m.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Langley plot and relative aureole on an optically unstable day, 12 Nov., a.m.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Total extinction optical depth from the Bouger relation compared with the same quantity derived from Kharitonova’s relation.

Equations (3)

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i τ = i 0 exp ( - m 0 τ ) ,
μ ( χ ) = I ( χ ) m 0 i τ = τ A p A ( cos χ ) 4 π ,
τ = - ln [ 0.912 - 4.4 μ m ] ( χ = 60 ° ) ] 0.162 τ 0.511 ,

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