Abstract

In this paper, we report on the use of inert gas ion bombardment during the deposition of MgF2 films on ambient temperature substrates. The low energy (<250-eV/ion) bombardment is shown to increase significantly the abrasion resistance and adherence of the films without significantly degrading their optical performance. The success of this technique has wide-ranging implications for the application of durable coatings to temperature sensitive substrates.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Hass, J. B. Heaney, H. Herzig, J. F. Osantowski, J. J. Triolo, “Reflectance and Durability of Ag Mirrors Coated with Thin Layers of Al2O3 plus Reactively Deposited Silicon Oxide,” Appl. Opt. 14, 2639 (1975).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Gautherin, C. H. R. Wiessmantel, “Some Trends in Preparing Film Structures by Ion Beam Methods,” Thin Solid Films 50, 135 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Adhesion of Germanium Films,” Thin Solid Films 526, 445 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Aisenberg, R. W. Chabot, “Physics of Ion Plating and Ion Beam Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 104 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. P. Howson, J. N. Avaritsiotis, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, “Formation of Transparent Heat Mirrors by Ion Plating onto Ambient Temperature Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 63, 163 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Wydeven, R. M. Kubacki, “Antireflection Coating Prepared by Plasma Polymerization of Perfluorobutene-2,” Appl. Opt. 15, 132 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Von G. Kienel, B. Heinz, “Antireflection Coatings on Plastic Substrates,” Vak. Tech 28, 108 (1979).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. McNeil, A. C. Barron, S. R. Wilson, W. C. Hermann, “Ion-Assisted Deposition of Optical Thin Films: Low Energy vs High Energy Bombardment,” Appl. Opt. 23, 552 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  12. P. J. Martin, H. A. Macleod, R. P. Netterfield, C. G. Pacey, W. G. Sainty, “Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of Thin Films,” Appl. Opt. 22, 178 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. A. Moochan, A. V. Demshishin, “Study of the Structure and Properties of Thick Vacuum Condensates of Nickel, Titanium, Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved 28, 653 (1969).
  14. D. M. Mattox, J. E. McDonald, “Interface Formation during Thin Film Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2493 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (American-Elsevier, New York, 1969), pp. 254–255.

1984

1983

1981

M. Laugier, “The Effect of Ion Bombardment on Stress and Adhesion in Thin Films of Silver and Aluminum,” Thin Solid Films 81, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979

R. P. Howson, J. N. Avaritsiotis, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, “Formation of Transparent Heat Mirrors by Ion Plating onto Ambient Temperature Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 63, 163 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Von G. Kienel, B. Heinz, “Antireflection Coatings on Plastic Substrates,” Vak. Tech 28, 108 (1979).

1978

S. Gautherin, C. H. R. Wiessmantel, “Some Trends in Preparing Film Structures by Ion Beam Methods,” Thin Solid Films 50, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Adhesion of Germanium Films,” Thin Solid Films 526, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

1976

1975

1973

S. Aisenberg, R. W. Chabot, “Physics of Ion Plating and Ion Beam Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 104 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969

B. A. Moochan, A. V. Demshishin, “Study of the Structure and Properties of Thick Vacuum Condensates of Nickel, Titanium, Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved 28, 653 (1969).

1963

D. M. Mattox, J. E. McDonald, “Interface Formation during Thin Film Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2493 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Aisenberg, S.

S. Aisenberg, R. W. Chabot, “Physics of Ion Plating and Ion Beam Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 104 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Avaritsiotis, J. N.

R. P. Howson, J. N. Avaritsiotis, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, “Formation of Transparent Heat Mirrors by Ion Plating onto Ambient Temperature Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 63, 163 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barron, A. C.

Bishop, C. A.

R. P. Howson, J. N. Avaritsiotis, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, “Formation of Transparent Heat Mirrors by Ion Plating onto Ambient Temperature Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 63, 163 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Chabot, R. W.

S. Aisenberg, R. W. Chabot, “Physics of Ion Plating and Ion Beam Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 104 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Demshishin, A. V.

B. A. Moochan, A. V. Demshishin, “Study of the Structure and Properties of Thick Vacuum Condensates of Nickel, Titanium, Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved 28, 653 (1969).

Gautherin, S.

S. Gautherin, C. H. R. Wiessmantel, “Some Trends in Preparing Film Structures by Ion Beam Methods,” Thin Solid Films 50, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hass, G.

Heaney, J. B.

Heinz, B.

Von G. Kienel, B. Heinz, “Antireflection Coatings on Plastic Substrates,” Vak. Tech 28, 108 (1979).

Hermann, W. C.

Herzig, H.

Hirsch, E. H.

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Adhesion of Germanium Films,” Thin Solid Films 526, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Howson, R. P.

R. P. Howson, J. N. Avaritsiotis, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, “Formation of Transparent Heat Mirrors by Ion Plating onto Ambient Temperature Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 63, 163 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kienel, Von G.

Von G. Kienel, B. Heinz, “Antireflection Coatings on Plastic Substrates,” Vak. Tech 28, 108 (1979).

Kubacki, R. M.

Laugier, M.

M. Laugier, “The Effect of Ion Bombardment on Stress and Adhesion in Thin Films of Silver and Aluminum,” Thin Solid Films 81, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

Martin, P. J.

Mattox, D. M.

D. M. Mattox, J. E. McDonald, “Interface Formation during Thin Film Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2493 (1963).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. E.

D. M. Mattox, J. E. McDonald, “Interface Formation during Thin Film Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2493 (1963).
[CrossRef]

McNeil, J. R.

Moochan, B. A.

B. A. Moochan, A. V. Demshishin, “Study of the Structure and Properties of Thick Vacuum Condensates of Nickel, Titanium, Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved 28, 653 (1969).

Netterfield, R. P.

Osantowski, J. F.

Pacey, C. G.

Ridge, M. I.

R. P. Howson, J. N. Avaritsiotis, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, “Formation of Transparent Heat Mirrors by Ion Plating onto Ambient Temperature Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 63, 163 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Sainty, W. G.

Triolo, J. J.

Varga, I. K.

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Adhesion of Germanium Films,” Thin Solid Films 526, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wiessmantel, C. H. R.

S. Gautherin, C. H. R. Wiessmantel, “Some Trends in Preparing Film Structures by Ion Beam Methods,” Thin Solid Films 50, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, S. R.

Wydeven, T.

Appl. Opt.

Fiz. Met. Metalloved

B. A. Moochan, A. V. Demshishin, “Study of the Structure and Properties of Thick Vacuum Condensates of Nickel, Titanium, Tungsten, Aluminum Oxide and Zirconium Dioxide,” Fiz. Met. Metalloved 28, 653 (1969).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. M. Mattox, J. E. McDonald, “Interface Formation during Thin Film Deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 34, 2493 (1963).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

S. Aisenberg, R. W. Chabot, “Physics of Ion Plating and Ion Beam Deposition,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10, 104 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

R. P. Howson, J. N. Avaritsiotis, M. I. Ridge, C. A. Bishop, “Formation of Transparent Heat Mirrors by Ion Plating onto Ambient Temperature Substrates,” Thin Solid Films 63, 163 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Laugier, “The Effect of Ion Bombardment on Stress and Adhesion in Thin Films of Silver and Aluminum,” Thin Solid Films 81, 61 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Gautherin, C. H. R. Wiessmantel, “Some Trends in Preparing Film Structures by Ion Beam Methods,” Thin Solid Films 50, 135 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. H. Hirsch, I. K. Varga, “The Effect of Ion Irradiation on the Adhesion of Germanium Films,” Thin Solid Films 526, 445 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vak. Tech

Von G. Kienel, B. Heinz, “Antireflection Coatings on Plastic Substrates,” Vak. Tech 28, 108 (1979).

Other

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters (American-Elsevier, New York, 1969), pp. 254–255.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photomicrographs of abrasion damage of MgF2 deposits on (a) room-temperature quartz substrate, no ion bombardment; (b) 300°C quartz substrate, no ion bombardment; (c) IAD film on quartz, energy = 150 eV, flux = 53 μA/cm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of temperature rise vs time at substrate due to ion bombardment at several different energies.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrophotometer measurements in UV region for a bare quartz substrate, a hot deposited standard, and an IAD MgF2 film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RBS analysis of MgF2 films on carbon substrates: (a) film deposited on 300°C substrate, no ion bombardment; (b) film deposited by IAD on room temperature substrate, energy = 150 eV, flux = 30 μA/cm2.

Equations (2)

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1 : 1.93 ± 0.04 : 0.0226 ± 0.007 : 0.0067 ± 0.0007 Mg : F : O : Ta .
1 : 1.86 ± 0.04 : 0.20 ± 0.01 : 0.025 ± 0.002 : 0.01 ± 0.001 Mg : F : O : Ar : W / Ta .

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